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Analysis Of The Case Of Jack The Ripper Through A Criminological Lens

Table of Contents


This is an introduction to my work.

Mary Ann Nichols

Anne Chapman

Elizabeth Stride

Catherine Eddowes

Mary Jane Kelly

Jack the Ripper’s Other Potential Victims

Jack the Ripper’s First Thoughts

Behavioral and psychological profile

Aaron Kosminski

Charles Cross

Thomas Cutbush

Prime Suspect

In conclusion

Jack the Ripper, arguably the world’s most notorious serial killer, is still alive and well today. In 1888, Jack terrorized London, killing and mutilating at least five female victims. Jack has eluded the best criminal minds for decades. He was never identified or caught. We may never be able to know Jack’s real identity, despite the many theories that have been put forth over the years. This paper will explore this case from a criminological perspective. We will then analyze the Canonical Five – the five confirmed victims – as we do those that are suspected to have also been victims. Then we will analyze Jack’s life and create a criminal biography. This information will help us create a list for suspects and to identify the most likely Jack the Ripper.

IntroductionIn any serial killing case, selecting the victim is one of the most important aspects of the crime. Finding commonalities between victims may help to identify the perpetrator. We need to understand Jack the Ripper’s victims if we are to understand him. There are five victims who are generally accepted as being Jack the Ripper’s. They are called “The Canonical Five”. Jack the Ripper’s Whitechapel legend centers around the murders that took place on these five female victims. The similarities between them will be highlighted, as well as the reasons why Jack chose to kill these five women. In addition, many women have claimed that the Ripper also victimized them over the course of time. Based on the profile of each victim, we will determine if that person was a Ripper victim. We can estimate the number of victims Jack the Ripper had in total based on the information we have.

Emily Hollard described Mary Ann Nichols’s death, which occurred on August 31st 1888, as “a very sane woman who always seemed secluded”. She was also a known alcoholic. William Nichols was her husband for more than 20 years. They had five children together. Mary Nichols and William Nichols were married for over 20 years. They had five children together. William stopped her support payments after discovering the truth. Mary had to live in workhouses for some time. She was drunk and stumbling on the night she died in 1888. She was seen in the act of prostitution, earning money to pay for her lodging at Wilmott’s Lodging House. A carman discovered her body around 3:40 A.M. on Buck’s Row the following morning. The officer was alerted. A carman found her body the next morning around 3:40 AM. He alerted the nearest police officer of his discovery. The abdomen was also covered with deep cuts. These deep cuts were made with a sharp, large knife and a lot of force.

Anne ChapmanAnnie Chapman’s drinking problem was recognized, although she was not deemed an alcoholic. The reason she split from John Chapman may have come down to this. She began prostitution after John’s death and had an affair with Edward Stanley, who was a pensioner. Few days before she died, Eliza Cooper was physically attacked by her rival. Anne began to feel ill a few weeks after the physical altercation. Elizabeth Long witnessed her walking with a stranger on Hanbury St. in the early evening. A scream was heard, as well as something hitting a wall. Mary Ann Nichol had been murdered not far from this location. Her abdomen was also disemboweled. Mary Ann Nichol was murdered with an instrument that looked similar. Annie’s crime suggested the killer needed to be an anatomical expert.

Elizabeth StrideElizabeth Stride was 44 years old when she died on September 30,1888. She was quiet but willing to help anyone. She was arrested for disorderly conduct and drunkenness. She was registered in 1865 as a prostitute, but she earned money by sowing, charring and receiving payments from Michael Kidney. Michael Kidney lived with her at various times until she died. She had children in 1869 with John Stride. John Stride’s death in 1884 brought the marriage to a complete end. She was often absent when she moved in with Michael Kidney, 1885. She would drink. She was spotted leaving Bricklayer’s Arms Public House on the 30th of September, with a male companion whom she kissed and hugged. The man described was dressed in a suit. Israel Schwartz, who was a resident of the neighborhood, turned onto Berner Street that evening at about 12:45. He saw a male talking to what he presumed to have been Elizabeth. He saw her fall to the floor and heard the woman screaming. On the other side of street was a man. The man who had thrown Elizabeth to the floor yelled at him “Lipski”, the insult for Jews. Schwartz ran away when the man in question began heading towards him. Elizabeth’s remains were discovered very soon, still hot. The throat of Elizabeth was still intact, but no mutilations had been performed. This suggests that Jack the Ripper had fled before he could perform a mutilation.

Catherine EddowesCatherine Eddowes had a temper that was fierce. Catherine Eddowes died in 1888 at age 46. In 1888, at the age of 21, she began a relationship with Thomas Conway. They had three children together. The couple separated in 1881. John Kelly was a market vendor when she lived at Cooney’s. Catherine was described as “a jolly woman”, who drank occasionally but not too much. She did not like to walk on the street. Elizabeth and John both struggled with money. On 29 September, Elizabeth informs John that her daughter will lend her money. She is arrested for drunkenness later that night and released shortly after. When she leaves, however, the woman heads the other way, back in the direction she had been found drunk. Last seen at 135 A.M. she was with a 30 year old man with fair skin, a mustache, and medium height. The man who was seen with Elizabeth Stride had a similar description. Her body was found shortly after. Her body was mutilated and her throat was deep cut. Her intestines and other body parts were moved or removed.

Mary Jane KellyMary Jane Kelly died in 1888 at age 25. According to her acquaintances, she was always sober even though she would get boisterous when she drank. She was quiet and reserved. Others found her attractive and liked her. Joseph Barnett was her boyfriend before her death. She may have had her first child at the age of 16. Three years later her husband was murdered, and she moved to Cardiff where she became an prostitute. She was very sick and spent many days in the hospital. She worked as a prostitute in London’s high society brothel. While in Paris, she accompanied another person but returned home. Mary Barnett and her husband Joseph met in 1886 at Cooley’s Lodging House. Barnett and Mary were notorious for getting into trouble when drunk. In 1888, Barnett quits Mary after losing his employment, but he still visited her often. On November 8th, she was spotted drinking at the Britannia in London with an obliging man. She returns to her Miller’s Court room, where they stay until about 2:00 AM, at which point she leaves to look for money. About an hour later, she returned with a second man. The police found her body mutilated in her room the following morning. Her breasts and face were severed and mutilated, as were her organs. Her neck had also been cut to the bone.

Other Jack the Ripper possible victimsBefore, after, and in the area of Whitechapel there were many other murdered females who have, over the decades, been argued as being Jack the Ripper’s victims. While the theories differ in terms of location, manner of death, and condition of body when discovered, it has been debated for years by theorists whether these murders were committed by the Ripper. Several women survived attacks from Jack. We will investigate some of the cases to see if there is any reason to suspect these women of being Rippers.

As I’ve mentioned, a number of women were attacked, but they survived. Anne Millwood Annie Farmer Ada Wilson may have been Ripper victims before the mutilations. The attacker(s), who escaped, stabbed these women, but they lived. In general, they’re regarded by the public as victims of an armed robbery that went wrong. The Canonical Five were attacked so brutally that I am convinced they are dead. These women were not Rippers because the Ripper never stole any personal items. Emma Smith, another woman, was attacked and robbed, raped, and beaten by four youths. The attackers could have been Whitechapel prostitute robbing gangs.

In other cases, body parts belonging to a woman have been discovered. The River Thames was the scene of body parts being discovered in both the Whitehall Mystery case and the disappearance of Elizabeth Jackson. In the Pinchin street murder, where the victim may have been Lydia Hart, the torso of a woman was found under a railroad arch. The Whitehall and Pinchin streets murders may have been connected but at the same time, the police had no reason to believe that the crimes were linked to Jack the Ripper. I believe that the mutilation was done to both fulfill his sexual fantasies while also making a statement to the finders of the bodies. So, he wouldn’t have gone as far as disposing of bodies, like the Canonical Five. Jack wouldn’t have dismembered the body and hidden the different parts.

Jack is suspected to be responsible for other murders, but it’s not clear if they are Jack or not. Rose Mylett was a prostitute from the Whitechapel district who was killed about a month after Mary Jane Kelly’s murder. Her death was determined as a result of strangulation. However, her throat was left intact. Jack would not have cut her throat, nor would he have mutilated her.

Carrie Brown’s murder took place in the East River Hotel at Manhattan in New York 1891. The crime occurred many years after the case of Jack the Ripper. Her body had been mutilated. She also appeared to have been strangled. Ameer Bin Ali, a foreigner from Egypt, was charged with her murder but later released. It is not a Ripper case because it was in another nation, long after the Rippers were murdered, and a Danish boy could have been implicated.

Frances Coles’ murderer, in particular, has striking similarities to the Jack the Ripper victims. Before her death in February 1891, Frances Coles was involved in prostitution. James Sadler met her a few day before she died, and they spent a great deal of time together. Sadler had been robbed on the night of her murder. He and Frances argued, Sadler saying that Frances didn’t assist him. Sadler was involved with three more fights in the evening. Frances, while out soliciting, met Ellen Calana. Ellen had just been assaulted by an aggressive man. Frances decides to go with him, against Ellen’s advice. Sadler, who was originally charged with Frances’s murder, was cleared. There were no signs that she had been mutilated, even though her throat was cut. Due to the fact that the murder occurred more than two years after the last Ripper, I doubt that he’d wait that long before striking again. Although I wouldn’t be surprised, if the truth were revealed.

There are two victims who I think could have been Jack the Ripper’s victims based on their similarities in life and death to the confirmed Ripper victim. Martha Tabram was 38 when she died on 7 August 1888. Her husband Henry Tabram divorced her because of her heavy drinking and habitual late-night outings. Mary Ann Connolly was with her the night she died, as they went to solicit with a prostitute. They also drank alcohol with two other security guards. Martha disappeared with her guard into George Yard, a dangerous area of Whitechapel. Her body, which was found in the early morning hours the following day, had 39 stabs. They were concentrated on the breasts as well as the abdomen and throat. Some of the stab wounds may have been caused by an even longer, stronger blade than a small knife (Jones). Martha was probably an early victim because she was brutally murdered and the attack focused on certain parts of the human body. This occurred before the Ripper’s murders.

Alice Mackenzie seems to be another possible Ripper victim. She was killed on July 16, 1889 – just over a year after the last Ripper confirmed victim. She was nicknamed “claypipe”, despite knowing little about her early years. Her drinking and smoking habits earned her this name. The night of her murder, she was found drunk at the lodging house where she stayed, and she also had not paid the rent. She was also seen moving quickly in the direction of Whitechapel later that evening, where she would be discovered the following morning. She suffered wounds that are very similar to the other Ripper-victims. These include the area around her throat, abdomen, breasts and chest. This was confirmed by the fact that the Ripper had a right hand, but these wounds looked like they were caused by someone with a left. But I still think that Alice is a Ripper’s victim, because her killing was consistent. Jack may have used his left-hand during the struggle. As a result, some of Jack’s wounds look different.

The Ripper’s psychological and behavioral profile can be created based on all the evidence available: his victims, crime scenes, and witness testimonies. This may not be a true portrayal, but we can get a better idea of what the Ripper’s life was like before and after he committed these murders. We can also learn about his traumas and mental illnesses. These elements can help us identify the character.

Jack the Ripper: First ThoughtsWithout getting into the details of the evidence, we can make some general assumptions. The close proximity of each murder suggests that he was a Whitechapel resident and had knowledge of this area. This would help him to be able to identify his victims or to hide his murders. A strong desire to be sexual is also evident from the removal of sexual organs. It could have been a result of a childhood trauma. A prostitute was one of his victims, so he most likely provided the service. Jack was probably a skilled knifeman, as he mutilated his victims. This may have been related to his occupation which requires fine-tuned handwork and a sharpened knife. His ability to remove certain organs from victims may indicate that he is an expert in anatomy.

Behavioral and psychological profileBecause the Ripper’s victims were female and he specifically targeted the abdomen area of the victims, we can deduce that he is male. This may indicate that the Ripper is homosexual, especially if the victims are male. Female lust murderers were extremely rare during this period, but even more so in this case. The offender may want to blend in with the community he targets, and not look too out of place. He wants to appear wealthy, so he won’t have to contact his victims.

Looking back at his early childhood, he may come from a household where his father is absent or his mother is the most domineering parent. In this case, his emotional detachment from society and lack of care due to a lack of role models and proper care was the result. His anger could have been released in his childhood by setting fires or torturing animals. This is a common trait of serial killers. This fantasy would have led to a desire to abuse women violently (FBI). He would attempt to live these fantasies by working as a doctor or butcher. We can assume he was employed Monday to Friday because the killings took place on weekends.

Jack may have had a negative self-image. It may be that Jack was paranoid and thought he was being watched all the time, so he always carried a knife. He could also be suffering from a mental disorder or a physical disability.

Jack was drinking in local pubs and taverns before his murders. This would attract possible victims. Although he might not kill all prostitutes he encounters, maybe because of the lack of security in that area. He would have a plan for when and how to kill the victims. After killing his victims he would return into an area and clean himself. He would not deliberately enter into a police investigation because this case was so well-known. He believed that his actions would be justified by the fact that he removed “garbage”, from society.

We can create a list of suspects using this profile. With the growing complexity of the case, the number has increased to hundreds. Despite the many theories that have been proposed, none of them have proven to be conclusive. Some people believe he is a high-class man or doctor. Others believe he could be a Whitechapel local. While many suspects were included on the list after the investigation was completed, others, like Prince Albert Edward Victor and Lewis Carrol, had never even been considered.

Aaron KosminskiAaron Kosminski is a Polish Jew living in Whitechapel. He’s one of the most popular suspects. Senior Officer Melville Macnaghten stated that “this man had become insane… He was a person who had a hatred for the prostitutes and homicidal thoughts” (Jones). Kosminski also featured in Sir Robert Anderson’s memoirs, an officer of the same rank. Israel Schwartz was the most likely witness to his attack. Schwartz saw the Ripper’s face while attacking Elizabeth Stride. Aaron Kosminski was who? He moved to London from Poland in the early 1880s. His father was not with him. Kosminski worked as hairdresser for the Whitechapel murders. In the 1890s his mental health began to deteriorate. He was certified insane in 1891 and sent to Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum Colney Hatch.

Charles CrossCharles Cross has been mentioned as a suspect who was first to discover Mary Ann Nichols Body. Charles Lechmer. While he called himself that to investigators, he was really Charles Lechmer. Cross claims that he passed Buck’s Row on the evening of the murder and walked to the object he saw. It was a female. Robert Paul found him when he came to examine the body. The two men left the corpse and alerted an officer about it. Cross’ supporters will say that Paul interrupted Cross during the murder. Cross then attempted to cover the fact by saying he had been shocked after seeing the dead body. Cross’s route regularly leads him past three Ripper crime scenes: Annie Chapman and Catherine Eddowes. Mary Jane Kelly is also on the list. His mother’s home is also located close to where Elizabeth Stride found.

Thomas CutbushCutbush was another name added to the list of Ripper suspects in recent years. He was a disturbed man who was regarded as violent and possibly insane at the time of his murders. In 1891 he made a name for himself when he arrived at Lambeth Infirmary. Broadmoor Hospital was his final destination after he tried stabbing two women. The Sun reported in February 1894 that he may have killed prostitutes because he had contracted venereal diseases from prostitutes. The Sun newspaper in February 1894 reported that he had not committed suicide but was still a danger. Many violent incidents were described by him during his hospitalization. He was a medical student in his childhood. Some reports mention that he wore clothes stained with blood.

Aaron Kosminski was my first suspect when it came to Jack the Ripper. Aaron Kosminski is my prime suspect in the case of Jack the Ripper. He had a history of violent behavior and was also suffering from mental illness. This could have led to violent acts or even murder. His father was also absent when he immigrated with his family to Britain. It is unknown if he didn’t immigrate or had passed away before. This would have prevented him from having a father figure who was able to guide and protect him. In the beginning, he was a hairdresser. His fine hand-eye coordination would have been a perfect match for the cutting and mutilation of the victims. Israel Schwartz who was present at the Elizabeth Stride attack and two senior investigators were also witnesses to the incident positively identified him.

Kosminski is a suspect in my opinion, but I think that there are other people who could be involved. Kosminski, for example, was an immigrant who lived in London at the time of the murders. Some of these suspects had no connections to Whitechapel or the surrounding area when the murders were committed. Others, like Montigue John Druitt and Michael Ostrog did not have any connection. The murders were also committed in a certain way, which we know. George Chapman or Dr. Thomas Neill Cream are suspects who used poison. That rules them both out.

ConclusionThis case continues to puzzle some of today’s best criminologists after more than a century. And yet, we have not solved one of criminal history’s biggest mysteries. Although “Ripperologists”, who have been claiming to have the answer for years, are still in dispute within the Ripper’s community. Criminal experts have been arguing about Jack’s motivations, the victims he chose, and his identity. In truth, we might never really know who Jack the Ripper or why he perpetrated these horrific crimes all those years ago. Only the few pieces of evidence left after the crimes can help us infer what we believe he was. This is just an educated opinion based upon the available information.

The Role Of Benjamin Banneker And Paul Cuffe In The Antislavery Movement

Many freedmen had an abolitionist bent and made a huge impact on slavery in the antebellum time. Benjamin Banneker or Paul Cuffe, to name just a couple of notable freedmen in the slavery era. They took up their cause and helped to move the antislavery campaign forward.

Benjamin Banneker grew up in Banneky Farm. He was born November 9, 1731. He was a mathematician. He was taught to read by his grandmother. He was interested in science and mathematics. He taught himself to do astronomy. Banneker constructed a highly accurate wooden timepiece by hand. As his only models, he used a pocketwatch as well as a picture. It was thought that this clock was the first to be made in America. Benjamin Banneker was also correct in his prediction of a solar Eclipse. This prediction was contrary to those of many well-known scientists. He did all the calculations for an annual almanac. Banneker gave Jefferson his almanac. Jefferson was very impressed by his work. The almanac was sent to the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris. The almanac displayed the talents and skills of African Americans. Abolitionists used the almanac to show African Americans’ talents and abilities. Then, they are able to contribute to the society just as well as whites. He changed many people’s views towards African Americans. Benjamin Banneker was born in Baltimore on September 9, 1731.

Paul Cuffe was born at Cuttyhunk Island in Maryland on January 17,1759. He was a merchant, shipowner and Pan-Africanist. He was a wealthy African American. Ruth Moses, who was African American, and Kofi, a slave, gave birth to him. Paul Cuffe was an American Revolutionary War privateer. Alice Pequit married him. Together, they had ten kids. He wanted African settlements to be established and trade routes developed. He encouraged black migration. Paul Cuffe campaigned to raise money for the relocation of black settlers from Sierra Leone. He sought to assist African Americans but accepted assistance from the white community. He became a member of the Society of Friends. This is a Christian Quaker organization. His faith was a driving force in his advocacy for African Americans. He donated his wealth for the benefit of others. He helped revitalize Africa. He founded The Friendly Society of Sierra Leone. He brought many African Americans to Sierra Leone. He wrote “The Memoir of Captain Paul Cuffee”. Paul Cuffe was determined to return to Sierra Leone many times to help relocate African Americans. Unfortunately, his life’s work would have to end. He died at Westport in Maryland on 7 September 1817. He was buried at a Society of Friends Cemetery.

The anti-slavery movement in the antebellum era was greatly influenced by African American freedmen. The abolitionists were encouraged by them and the African Americans’ perceptions changed. In later years, they were responsible for the emancipation.

Timeline In The World History Of The Xx Century

Joseph Stalin is regarded as the bloodiest leader in history. In the USSR, he was the dictator. Stalin was coldblooded, cold and hard. He began using the name Stalin in 1910. It is usually interpreted’man with steel’. His image was one of a man who had a strict, hard-lined approach. Stalin took control of the Soviet Union after Lenin died in 1924. Lenin said that Stalin wasn’t the best leader to follow and that he couldn’t trust him. He believed Stalin to be a dangerous person. Stalin’s own skills and understanding of the Communist Party allowed him to rise to a position of great power by 1928. Trotsky, who had accumulated power, was banished from the Communist Party in 1929. Stalin, on the other hand, was now a supreme dictator. Stalin changed the Soviet Union’s status from one of a peasant-based society to that of a superpower.

He was a ruthless ruler, however, and many of the people he ruled over died as a result.1937-19382. The Great Purge Known as the Great Terror or the Great Purge in Russian, this period of Russian history between the years 1937 and 1938 was one that is remembered for its darkness. The wired fences that surrounded the camps, the watchtowers and the laborious camp hunts are all evidence of the suffering millions of Soviets citizens endured under Joseph Stalin. He set up a totalitarian government by eliminating all political rivals in Soviet society. The Great Purge stood out because Stalin’s tactic of terrorism allowed him to retain his authority. Stalin would have failed to create the USSR if he had simply used his persuasion skills. Russia’s Army was better prepared than the Germans, even though they weren’t ready for them. The only way Russia could hold together was by using terror. Stalin’s continued rule after World War II was largely due to terror. The Long March () The Long March was a major event in China’s history.

In the early months of 1934, the Red Army crossed 6,000 miles to reach northern China from Jiangxi, fleeing Kuomintang. Chinese Communists escaped and avoided direct confrontation as a result of the Kuomintang chasing them. I chose Long March instead Shanghai Massacre. Because the Long March has been known as a successful military withdrawal that allowed the Communists to control all of China. Mao Tse Tung, the leader of the Chinese Communist Party was appointed during this time. This was a significant event which would shape the future development of the Chinese Communist Party. Shanghai Massacre was not a success and didn’t have the ability to compete effectively against Communists.

The Long March was my choice over the Shanghai Massacre.19304. The Salt MarchThe Salt March, a nonviolent anti-British protest movement was the plan of the Salt March. Mahatma Gandhi, along with a few of his closest supporters, began the Salt March on 12th march 1930. They traveled about 240 kilometres to the western side India using the seawater from a village near the coast called Dandi. They protested the British government for taxing salt and allowing Indians to only purchase salt from government sources.

The British used brutal violence on the Indians in order to gain control over them. Indians were revealing their morals by refusing to fight and continuing to disobey laws. This gave us the impression that the British couldn’t control India. And they appeared evil. India would be able gain independence from Britain once the British House of Commons approved the Indian Independence Act.19355.

The Government of India Act is officially passed by British Parliament on August 1935. India was granted limited democratic rights and local self-government, but not complete independence. The Government of India Act, however, also fuelled tensions between Muslims & Hindus. The two groups had opposing visions of India as a future independent country. Hindus dwarfed Indian Muslims who expected Hindus to take control of India in the event that India gained autonomy. It was vital that there was some autonomy granted to the provinces. The Indians would gain more representation in the new parliamentary systems. They also had greater voting rights. In 1909, only 25% of India’s population could vote. It was the first and last time this was allowed. 19056. Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed the theory that all laws of physics were the same in the entire universe. Three simple explanations can be used to quickly and simply explain this theory. First, it is important to note that there are no “absolute frames of reference”.

Each time an object was measured, its velocity or momentum could be correlated to another thing. Second, light speed remained constant no matter who measured or estimated it. Third, light is the fastest thing that can move. It was notable that this theory altered people’s perceptions of the world. Isaac Newton had believed the laws of gravity and motion to be absolute. This theory contributed to the real-life knowledge and applications of other scientists: gold’s natural yellow color, mercury in liquid form, cathode Ray Tubes found in old televisions. Stock Market Crash After the Federal Reserve artificially decreased interest rates, which caused a “boom,” people were able to borrow money and invest. Interest rates rising caused deflation resulting in sharp drops in stock and commodities prices.

The dollar’s strength caused everyone to sell off their possessions. But the money supply was also reduced, so it was difficult to expand an economy. Stock Market Crash didn’t bring about the Great Depression. It merely accelerated the collapse of the American economy, making the Depression even more difficult. This resulted in bank failures, an economic collapse, high unemployment rates, and high inflation. About a decade-and-a-half was needed to recover the American economy. This crisis taught the next generation many important lessons. The government has created numerous regulations to ensure that another major crash will never occur. The New DealThe New Deal, an American domestic program launched by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his presidency in 1935. It was designed to provide immediate economic reliefs as well as help with changes in agriculture, industry, finance and house development, along with waterpower.

The New Deal failed to end the Great Depression. The New Deal did not end the Depression. New Deal has changed government forever. Before the New Deal era, people believed they should take care themselves. Federal government was not responsible for their financial security. New Deal changed everything. Suddenly, the federal government was responsible for ensuring the people’s financial security.

The New Deal of FDR continues to help Americans even today. Some of the important programs that are still around offer insurances and benefits, such as the National Pension System and Oversight of Labor Practices. Benito Mussolini was the founder of fascism, the official ideologie of Italy’s National Fascist Party. Fascism began due to Italy’s defeats in WWI and its disappointment at not receiving the promised territorial gains from the British. The “Red Years”, in which the Socialist Party dominated, were a result of this. The government, which had gained power by exploiting the local class, had also led to rising unemployment and inflation.

The Fascist Party became important because people wanted change, as the ineffective government was unable to solve problems. Mussolini understood that Italy was poor compared with France and Britain after 1918. In order to achieve this, Mussolini devised a plan that involved two aspects: attacking trade union power and, therefore, controlling workers. Mussolini’s fascist government changed Italy’s political system and transformed it into a dictatorship backed by terror. The economy was brought under the control of the state and there were changes in domestic life. The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression PactOn August 23, 1939, the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact had been signed just days before WWII began. A public agreement between Stalin, Hitler, and other officials was made. It ensured that neither side would attack eachother for 10 years and, if any problems did arise, they would be solved amicably. This secret protocol also contained a major agreement for Eastern Europe. Germany offered the Baltic States to the Soviets in exchange of their agreement not to take part in the possible future war. Poland was the first and only country to sign a separation agreement between them.

Hitler wanted Poland to be acquired without the use of military forces. He also wished to avoid the possibility that Germany would fight a second front war in WWI which could have divided its forces and weaken their offensives. Germany’s attempt to conquer Poland without the Soviets was successful. Hitler broke the agreement until Germany’s surprise invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.

The Importance Of Historiography In Studying History

The word History comes from the Greek istorio, which means investigation, research or exploration. The study of history is the narration of past events and stories. The study of history explains how men have fought the forces of nature for food, shelters, clothing and political and social organizations. History was written by men many years ago. This gave them the chance to reconstruct their lives and events, which helped in interpreting and analyzing history. Furay & Salevouris, 1988 define historiography: “the study and interpretation of history.” Historiography is not about studying past events. It’s more about the different interpretations of them. Historiography is the study that takes a different view of these same events. Historiography aims to write true accounts of events in the past that actually took place. In order to demonstrate the importance historiography has in the study of history, the essay presents different views on it from scholars.

Humans or living organisms have had a sense or memory of the past since they were created. They knew their history and the history of others. Humans are unique in nature. In the middle ages, both Greeks as well as Roman historians lost their charm and integrity in writing. This was mostly due to the Christian rise, who were believed to be sent by God to protect human wellbeing. To prove humanity and to condemn those who do so peacefully they must document, preserve the traditions of the religion and make their followers loyal. Slowly Christianity gained control over mankind again due to its supernatural influence.

History was seen as an account of events that were planned carefully and conveyed only by gods or their delegates. In the past, events recorded were not seen by historians as human acts but were instead deeds performed by the gods. Semi history declared that despite the fact that it is a small affirmation, the historical information contained in the book was not the answer to any inquiries, or the opinion of a specialist.

The history of historical writing is told through the historiography. Historiography now includes the development of historical writing techniques and ideas, as well as the evolving attitude toward history. It’s ultimately a study of how people perceive the past. The historian’s reconstruction is history, but it also deals with evidence. Records left by the past must be treated with caution, as they might not be entirely authentic.

Herodotus wrote about far-off events, which were told to him by second and third parties, with his curious nature. He also tried to find out how they happened. In essence, he tried to find rational explanations for the events, including the impact of geography and climate. He treated Greeks with patriotic zeal, but also fairly presented both sides in many political disputes. The style he adopted was loose, romantic, yet fascinating. He satisfied the desire of men for great stories with a style that is both easygoing and captivating.

Most western scholars have the same perspective as Herodotus. Chinese scholars or historians have no rights to publish their own opinions. The ruler, the emperor, and the aristocrats sponsored them to write their own history. Chinese historians were not influenced outside of China. The ‘Shi” is a form of history that requires three qualities: historical knowledge, talent and virtue. This gives a clear idea of the seriousness with which history is taken. In addition, the authors used the lessons learned from history to write a history that would benefit the future. Although their writings differ, they share similar topics and sections. Chinese history only includes comprehensive history. Dynastic history has been replaced with comprehensive history.

Ibn khaldun represents the Arab history what Thucydides represents Greek historiography, Tacitus represents Rome’s, and Thucydides represents Greek. Khaldun once said, “It is the science that explains circumstances and events. Its causes are deep.” It is a part of ancient wisdom that deserves to be called science. Muslims generally used criticism, observational, comparative and examinational methods. Critique is used to analyse historical events and their source, as well as the methods of historians. Examining different accounts and comparing them to eliminate falsifications or exaggerations. For a historian to be able criticize and explain effectively, they said that he or she must be educated and accurate in observation.

Historians use primary sources, such as documents, artifacts, architecture, and human remains, to interpret the past. Roman historians emphasized wars over social issues, and emphasized conquests. Some historians however, such as Chinese ones, didn’t give much thought to cause and affect because they wrote only what they were asked to. They rely more on Greek methods and less on Greek texts. In general, historiography is so biased. Pictor, for instance, wrote only on the history and morality of the roman state.

Historiography has helped us to understand the past in a new way. The most meaningful interpretation of their work is made when one examines the time period during which they composed. Historiography in reality is a reflection of the events that gave rise to it. In the same way that progressives were concerned with improving the standard of living in an era of innovation, dynamic historians viewed the revolutionary warriors as rivals for the ordinary man’s parcel.

Female Liberation And Power In Boccaccio’s “The Decameron”

Table of Contents

This is the start of something new.

The events, developments, and conditions that were happening in history at a particular time.

Historical Literary Text


In conclusion,

An opening

The Decameron”, a medieval masterpiece written by Giovanni Boccaccio and chronicled in ten days of events, highlights the worst and best of human behavior. Boccaccio’s stories cover topics like adultery (including premarital relations), love, devotion, trickery and manipulativeness, among other things. It is important because of the brutality and courage with which it exposes what goes on behind closed doors. Boccaccio’s Epilogue is full of “a plea for freedom, for a concept of literature without didactic or moralistic constraints, directed toward the amusement and comfort of the reader.”

Boccaccio wrote “The Decameron”, with the intention of entertaining the women who suffered and lost so much in the Black Death which swept across Europe. Boccaccio illustrated through his writings that the women of this era enjoyed a great deal of sexual freedom, which was due to the instability in society during and following the Black Plague. Boccaccio’s work also revealed a new side to women, one that men had never seen before: the way they used their intelligence, wit, sexuality, and sociability as tools to achieve a goal.

Bocaccio captures this moment in history in his works. The Decameron demonstrates how the women in that time used their intelligence, sexuality and power to break free of societal rules and restrictions.

Historical ContextIn order to fully understand why “The Decameron’s” characteristics were so unique, you must first know the barriers women faced in their daily lives. Classical Antiquity, or the time period between the 8th century BC and 400 AD, was preceding the Middle Ages. Although this period of time saw many changes, there is one significant difference in the societal structure of Europeans. Rome and Athens were the economic and cultural centers of antiquity. Both cities had similar roles for women and men.

In Rome the Romans considered women to be their father’s property until they were married. Roman wives and marriage were highly valued by Roman husbands. The wives’ advice was a manifestation of this appreciation. Men were known to listen to their wives’ advice in private, even though it wasn’t socially acceptable for women to give advice to their husbands publicly. Women tended to stay at home. In public or when traveling, a respectable woman would not be seen wandering around alone. They were socially expected to look after the family and children while their spouses worked. Women of higher social classes were not allowed to work. The Roman Empire did not allow women to hold any public office. Even a rich, elderly widow could not manage her finances independently. As a result, the social roles assigned to Roman women were very restrictive. In all aspects of life, women were subordinate to men.

Athenian woman were also equally submissive. Social paradigms between girls versus boys were firmly rooted in Athens from a young age. Boys and girls received separate educations that consisted of reading, writing and other skills. Girls were taught only domestic skills like weaving and childrearing. By tradition, fathers were the ones to marry their daughters off in male-centric weddings. Unlike Roman wives, Athenians did view their spouses as respected counterparts. They were viewed as nuisances that should be kept at home. Women from lower classes could only work if they were closely supervised. Respectable women were expected to take care of their husbands and families.

The Middle Ages began with the fall of Rome in the fifth century. Although the societal hierarchy of gender remained unchanged, the moral codes governing women were loosen due to The Black Plague. While the Church still regarded marriage as an institution of religion, in which women were bound to husbands, the chaos created by the disease led to a reduction in moral accountability in regards to the habits that women had with men. Boccaccio states in “The Decameron,” in its introduction, that the “venerable authority” of human and divine laws was “abassed and all-but totally dissolved in this extremity of the city’s sufferings and tribulations for the lack those who should enforce and administer them. The majority of citizens were either ill or dead and the servants were too hard-bested to be able to perform any official duties. In the Middle Ages, it was widely believed that females were more sexually lustful, and had an “insatiable hunger”, than males.

Historical Literary ContextGiovanni Buccaccio wrote the “Decameron” after the Black Plague, and dedicated it primarily to women. He defends the reasons for his book’s writing in the Fourth Day Introduction. He cites as his main argument that he has a masculine attraction to women and says he wanted to write the book in order for the women to bring him joy. Boccaccio may have had good intentions, but his gender’s perspective is more important. The Decameron is a landmark book in the Middle Ages. It was written by a woman for women and celebrated their freedom, diversity, and individuality. The majority of women’s literature was written by female writers.

Boccaccio could be considered a feminist. In his writings, Boccaccio praises women for their intelligence, cleverness, aggression, manipulation, and sexual freedom. Boccaccio, in particular, reveals the sexuality of medieval women with an unprecedented level of honesty. The chaos caused by the Black Death led to a loosening of laws and a muddled focus in society for a period of time. Due to this, the social norms governing women at that time were no more applicable. Boccaccio’s “Decameron” highlights the sexual freedom women enjoyed during this time. Boccaccio and other medieval authors also wrote about similar themes, but never in the same way or with such honesty. Most medieval writers hid their sexual references behind euphemisms or double-entendres.

Analysis”The Decameron,” in studying the female gender of The Middle Ages has significance for two major reasons. First, the Decameron broke away from the norm and gave women a more accurate, diverse portrayal. The book also chronicles the stories of women who defied social conventions and formed their own identities.

The defiant Wife is one of the ways “The Decameron” identifies an independent woman. Women were socially subordinate partners who took care of the home, never asserting their independence, and always submissive. Boccaccio’s collection features a number of women who break this mould. Tofano locks out his wife, who is an incredibly jealous man, in the fourth tale of the seventh day. He wife, sensing the negative perception that will come from his neighbors, devises an immediate plan to take control of the situation. She threatens to kill herself and her husband, if she does not jump into the deep well. She throws down a clever rock. Her husband runs to her rescue, believing that she has just jumped into the well. In reality, she locks her husband out of the house. This reverses the situation. Now that she has more power, the wife takes advantage of it to be freer from her wifely role. This story perfectly illustrates how a woman can use her wits to gain more freedom in her marriage.

There are many stories about women who have asserted themselves and spoken out in their societies. Madonna Filippa appears in the Seventh story of the sixth day. She is a woman who was caught with her lover by her husband. She cleverly challenges the law on which she was charged when she is brought before a court. She is acquitted not only of the charges against her, but she also has the law in question overturned. This story is special because it illustrates a woman who asserts herself by using her intelligence to fight not only her husband, but the laws and society that govern her. The Third Tale of Sixth Day also shows a female using rhetoric as a means to defend themselves. Monna nonna is approached in the street by two rich men who are abusive and haughty towards women. She doesn’t give in to their arrogance after she was questioned publicly with a question that sounded like it was meant as a dig. Instead, she bites them back. They leave her alone, embarrassed and shocked. Monna Nonna is a woman who does not hesitate to speak up when she has been wronged. This prevents further abuse or embarrassment.

The sexual behavior of the women is most notable. The nuns from the First story of the third day sum up the attitude of all sexually aggressive women when they state, “A single cock will satisfy ten chickens but ten men would struggle to satisfy 10 women.” The women of “The Decameron,” on the other hand, do not hesitate to declare their sexuality in a public and unconventional way, sometimes against the marriage. The theme of this story is not so surprising since the women at that time were believed to be more sexually lustful than the men. In the Second Tale of the Seventh Day, the character Peronella commits adultery in the same bedroom with her husband. When the husband comes home early, she’s with her lover. She is able to trick him into believing that the man was there to purchase a barrel her husband made. Peronella and her lover begin to engage in sexual activity behind the back of her husband, both figuratively as well as literally, while he is cleaning out the barrel. The wife cheats and is never caught. This story demonstrates a wife that has a sexual identity separate from marriage but is loyal to her man. She does not act like her husband and undermines his power. Peronella’s quick-thinking mentality allows her to maintain control over the marriage.

Similar themes are found in The Fifth Tale of Seventh Day. A jealous husband poses as a pastor to listen to his wife confess and confirm suspicions about adultery. The wife plays on the husband’s ignorance and convinces him that her lover will always enter through the doors. She sneaks into the house through the roof, while her husband patiently waits for her lover to come in. This act of adultery may be committed in a discreet manner, but the consequences are still the very same. The wife’s wit undermines husband power by achieving her desired result. The first tale of the ninth day is about a woman with a sexually lustful nature who challenges two lovers, not a spouse. Madonna Francesca, who loves neither lover, tries to rid them both. She devises a plan to trick the first lover into posing as a corpse and convince the second one to go in the tomb to retrieve him. Since both refuse, Madonna Francesca ends her love affairs. This story illustrates how a wife does not have to challenge her husband’s power, but rather men in general. Madonna Francesca’s intelligence allows her to put herself above both men. In doing so, she embodies the brave and defiant female Boccaccio attempted to faithfully illustrate in his “The Decameron.”

The overt homosexuality of some women in the “Decameron” is therefore a reaction to their need for rebellion against social structures. Often the restraints that women felt came from their marriages, the expectations of society, and even the men they married. Boccaccio credits women’s wittiness, intelligence, and sexuality with gaining power and controlling society. Boccaccio attributes characteristics within women such as wit, intelligence, and sexuality as means by which they attain power and control in society.

The Decameron, written by Giovanni Boccaccio, is ironically a feminist criticism of the Middle Ages. The stories, which serve as a comment on women’s changing roles at that time, also end up serving as a cautionary tale in many ways. The plots and themes of many stories provide examples to women on how they can live their lives and maintain relationships. It promotes women rebelling against social institutions like marriage, particularly if they’re unhappy or have overbearing spouses. The stories cited by Tofano’s Wife and others show how women rebelled only after being controlled or jealous husbands. Women can also learn from the stories of women who speak out for their rights in their community. Boccaccio wanted women to live happier lives after the Black Plague’s melancholy overtones. In this way, Boccaccio thought that women could use the opportunity of the Black Plague to publicly challenge the statusquo and denounce the unjust laws that were governing them. Boccaccio is a master at using cautionary stories to push his agenda. Monna Nonna stands up to two men after they disrespect her. Her ability to prevent the abuse instills confidence in women, who can emulate her and use their own strength of will to fight for what they believe is right.

Giovanni Boccaccio could have been making a statement by placing the story at the end of the Tenthday. Boccaccio may have placed this story on a day that was not corresponding to the message to bring it to light and to attract more attention. Griselda’s husband abuses her continuously all her life. She is not aware that he is testing her patience and commitment to the marriage. Then he commits terrible acts towards her: he abandons her, sends her kids away, and many other cruel things. Griselda, however, remains loyal to him. Her husband finally explains what he has done and attempts to make amends by bringing the children back. Once he has been convinced of her love, he treats his wife with kindness. Boccaccio is sarcastic throughout this tale. This story may serve as a warning to Boccaccio’s female characters that their steady devotion and will can lead them to do the wrong thing. Griselda’s story serves as a warning for women. Bocaccio was likely trying to convince women that they should not tolerate unfair treatment at the hands of men, as well as furthering his feminist agenda.

Boccaccio might have felt a special affinity for women. He may have written a series of stories to encourage the female community in The Middle Ages to strive to achieve greater respect.

ConclusionGiovanni Buccaccio declares in “The Decameron’s” Introduction and throughout the entire work that he wants to entertain and educate women, whom he holds in high regard and admiration. Boccaccio wished to transcend the sadness that characterized the time following the Black Death and to encourage the women of his day to use their intellect and freedom for greater happiness. In the end, Boccaccio’s work is an illustration of the increasing freedom and independence that women demonstrated at the time.

A Paper On The Renowned Exploration: Lewis And Clark

It would be difficult to comprehend the miniaturized United States and vast frontiers if we looked back 200 years. Men from all over our tiny, developing country had dreams and hopes in these lands. Young and old, skilled and passionate men explored this unexplored land. Thomas Jefferson gave the order to two men, along with 29 other contemporaries.

Meriwether Clarke (the commanding officer) and William Clark (the leader of a party of 31 members) embarked in a mysterious and fortifying expedition to find and document their way from the American continent to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first white men who saw its jagged cliffs, tumbling waves, and lush beaches. They would be the ones who first reported the mystery of frontier.

Captain Lewis and Captain Clark began their expedition across the nation on May 13, 1804. The men began their journey on the Missouri River in a 54 foot boat with several small canoes. First, they would have to travel from Fort Dubois to Two-Thousand-Mile Creek to meet the Sioux Indians. They couldn’t look back as they travelled up the Missouri. This was a journey that would change the course of American history.

The journey between Fort Dubois and Two-Thousand-Mile Creek remained relatively calm. The men were surrounded as they rode on the Missouri by lush green fields, endless plains, and animals. These men would eat these animals for the rest of their lives. Prairie Dogs and Prairie Wolfs were the first animals to be seen by humans. When the men saw the animals up close, they were surprised by how similar they looked to the gray squirrels in America. But when they killed them and got closer, they realized the differences. The men made several stops along the Missouri to rest, hunt, and contact Indians. The captains, their Indian interpreters and the Sioux and Ottoes traded and spoke with each other along the way. They observed that the Indians always celebrated friendship by puffing on a tobacco pipe. The Indians were friendly with the white men, who had never seen a skin this color.

The men camped for a few days after reaching Two-Thousand-Mile Creek. They were able to see the beauty of the landscape. Around the men, there were thousands of animals. Buffalo and antelopes freely roamed around waterholes. Elk and Deer, in unprecedented numbers, waded in the same pool as these men.

After spending a few nights on Two-Thousand-Mile Creek the men started their journey to the Shoshoni Indian Camp via Lemhi River. This journey would have covered 2,300 mile, a distance so long that it would be enough to make today’s drivers shudder. This is where they encountered their first great beast. After they killed the famous white bear, Captain Clark described it as a huge and terrifying animal that required 10 balls to kill. Captain Lewis described a massive waterfall as follows: “I would like to have the pencil or pen of Thompson to be able to give to the world an idea of how magnificent and sublimely great this object …”(p.61) is. The crew and captains saw their first snow-covered peaks in the Rocky Mountains along this route.

Smoking was a way for the men to celebrate their friendship with the Indians and trade many items. The men spent a couple of days at the Shoshoni Camp, where they traded many things with the Indians and celebrated their friendships by smoking. Travelers Rest Camp was set up by the travelers at Lolo Creek’s mouth, after passing through Bitterroot. The group climbed up to the Rocky Mountains and across frostbitten terrain after trading horses with Flathead Indians. Once they crossed the mountains, the group was greeted by a vast desert without animals or any wood for canoes. Finally, the Pacific Ocean’s rumbling was heard. This sound represented immense power and total conquest. The men were stunned by the tranquility and surreal effects that nature had on them. The sharp cliffs rising from the sea, the whales that were beached, the natives on the land and the salmon rush are all amazing. The men were on these shores for almost three months. They lived off roots and caught fish. Some Indians relied on their Captains’ survival. Captain Clark, now a doctor, was caring for people who were once considered savages and had lived on America’s frontiers for hundreds of year.

The men began to return home when the weather and time were right. The two captains had been journaling in elk-skin bound notebooks all along. They were now going to share their experiences and discoveries with the community they left. First they made the trip to Musquettoe Creek in the West Side Rocky Mountains. One problem stood out, and it was mosquitoes. The pain and suffering that these West Nile Virus carriers caused was almost unbearable. The brave, intelligent, and determined men were able to overcome this challenge and reach their resting place near the Rocky Mountains. After resting for 2 months, the group was able to continue on their journey. During that time they lived in a neighboring tribe named the Chinooks. The Chinooks treated the white men very well, as did their black servant. They offered to give them horses or even kill them for food when they needed it. They gave the Indians whatever they did not have in bartering. After the next full-moon, when the mountains could be seen and were not covered with 15 feet snow, they moved. On the 30th June 1806 they crossed the Rocky Mountains over icy precipices and hills.

It was time for the final adventure. The last part seemed easier than the rest of the journey. Travelers Rest was the starting point for the voyagers. From July 3, 1806 to August 12, 1806 they were on their way. On the way to the Missouri River’s opening, the group was split. Clark and some men chose an alternate route, plotted by Lewis. Clark’s trip went smoothly. They made it through Yellowstone Park with the assistance of an Indian woman, who was the wife of a crewmember. Clark’s men and a large number of Indians came into contact and saw many animals. However, they did not encounter any problems. Lewis and the men met a band French-speaking Miniarates Indians that had a bad name. While the men were sleeping, the Indians stole the guns from the men and attempted to escape the white man’s horse. William Clark’s men and one Indian were woken up by a fight that resulted in the death of the Indian. They then took 15 Indian Horses from the thieves. After the incident, the remainder of the trip, to the rendezvous point at the mouth Missouri, was uneventful.

Clark and Lewis had reunited and were returning home. On the 23rd September 1806, Clark and Lewis, along with their crew, arrived at St. Louis in front of an amazed America. Jefferson was the only one who remembered their mission. Everyone else had given up or forgotten. Clark and Lewis then sent Washington their writings and the materials they dealt with, as well as the skeletons and new vocabulary they acquired. They were no longer heroes of war, but of the new era.

This journey by Meriwether and William Clark is vital for the survival of America. These men returned to America with the route they had taken to the Pacific. This led them to create the rest of the country.

How The Followers Of Mark Anthony Opposed His Friendship With Queen Cleopatra As Depicted In William Shakespeare’s Antony And Cleopatra

40BC was the era of power politics, when major rivals were always at war, fighting to achieve their own goals and advance their cause.

When we begin the play, the first opposition that we face is that of Antony’s followers who are opposed to his actions because they are motivated by Cleopatra. Rome symbolizes order, conduct, governance. Adrian Goldsworthy asserts that Antony ‘risks everything to follow the heart’. Mark Antony lived an extravagant and comfortable lifestyle in 40BC. It was clear that Mark Antony made his decision to leave Egypt and abandon the life he’d earned by leaving behind all of his duties. Philo claimed Antony had been the ‘triple-pillar of the World, transformed’ into a strumpet fool. The metaphor ‘triple column’ represents Antony’s role in the Rome triumvirate. This paralleling of’strumpets Fool’ translated as “whores Jester” acts as tragic convention. Cleopatra’s tragic flaw is conveyed by Cleopatra as his hamartia. Keith Linley believes that Antony is a man who gives in to his emotions and ignores his duties. This opinion was supported historically when Antony left Rome for Egypt.

His supporters comment on his unusual emotional state, claiming that his passion has ‘O’erflowed the measure’. The John Munby 2014 production Antony and Cleopatra demonstrates this hyperbole by portraying Antony as a subordinate to Cleopatra. Antony is shown following her everywhere, and at any given time, with his body oriented towards Cleopatra. Cleopatra leaving Antony after the battle on sea is what his supporters say. The paradoxical statement shows that the Romans oppose Antony’s relationship with Cleopatra. They believe she has poisoned Antony’s mind and rendered him incapable of ruling. It is also true that Romans tried to smear Cleopatra by blaming her for the sudden weakness of their leader, and blamed it on sorcery, not infatuation.

Antony faces a number of political opponents. Adrian Goldsworthy says that ‘the younger generations were more active in politics’. This idea is supported by the quote ‘When We Debate/ Our Minor Difference Loud, We Do Commit/ Murder In Healing Wounds’. It shows Antony’s passivity to the turmoil, as he attempts to calm down the other members of the Triumvirate. Goldsworthy is also supported by the age difference between Antony and Lepidus. Lepidus’s quote, ‘They’re his shards. He’s their beetle.’ further illustrates the opposition’s political position. This anthropomorphism makes Lepidus look like an insect. It creates a mental image of Lepidus working hard while the others do nothing. Enobarbus’ belief that Antony, Octavius and their ‘beetle-like’ Lepidus are useless and worthless is demonstrated by the word shards which can be translated as ‘cowpats’. This view is traditional, as Lepidus was known for his approachable and friendly personality. Cleopatra even opposes Antony. Thidius delivers a Message from Octavian in Act 3 scene 13. Cleopatra tells Octavian that she kisses his hand as they exchange formalities. John Dryden explains that Antony feels offended when his lover says this. John Munby’s 2014 Antony and Cleopatra production strongly supports this assertion, as Cleopatra stops as shown by the insert ellipsis. The statement is given a promiscuous and suggestive tone by the ellipsis. The fact that the scene is post-abandonment on the sea adds to the effect, since it shows how she, who sacrificed her glory and empire for him, would already be courting his favour. Cleopatra is known to be seductive. She seduced Caesar before Antony by sneaking in and dressing a carpet in gold. This shows that shakespeare’s play is built around oppositions. Antony’s lover, for example, is often presented as an opposite.

Shakespeare builds his ‘Antony and Cleopatra’play around several opposing forces. The most notable of these is Antony’s supporters opposition to Cleopatra and Antony’s own political opposition. But the most fascinating of all of this opposition is the one that arises between Antony and Cleopatra.

The Similarities Between Events In The Crucible And The Holocaust

Imagine the feeling of being thrown in a prison cell and waiting for your death. Over the course of history, certain groups have been persecuted because they are who they claim to be, or are perceived to be. Salem witch trials in the 1600s wrongly accused innocent people. The Holocaust is one of humanity’s most notorious genocides. The similarities between the two situations are shocking, despite the fact that they have many differences.

Abigail Williams is able to hear and speak in The Crucible. “I heard Goody Hawkins talking with the Devil!” Miller (48). As soon as she spoke, warrants were issued to those accused. Power stability is essential for a functioning society. If the president was given all the powers, he’d be able do whatever he wants and use them to his advantage. Abigail was able to decide which person should be charged with witchery. Abigail took advantage of her power.

History has shown that it is easy to blame someone for a conflict. Adolf Hitler felt Jews were responsible for the entire world’s problems. Hitler was in a position to execute over six millions Jews. He could accomplish anything, because he was on the side of the Germans. Abigail also did this when she spread witch rumors and got others to back her up. Abigail needed to be the leader for others. She was able to control many people. Abigail Williams was able to convince others of falsehoods, just like Adolf Hitler. Both had the same goal, which was to get someone killed, tried, or for people to believe their nonsense.

Adolf Hitler, like Abigail, discriminated against those who did not conform to society’s norms. In both cases, the victims were blamed for being outsiders. Hitler tried to wipe out the Jewish community because of their differing religious beliefs. He preyed on crippled children and those with mental disabilities before the Holocaust. His belief was that disabled people were not deserving of living. Salem’s witches were selected because of their lifestyle. Goody Good, Goody Osburn and other people who had bad reputations in town were accused of witchcraft. Elizabeth Proctor denied being a Witch when she was accused. The lifestyles of these two women was highlighted. In both instances, people who lived lives that did not conform to the standard were persecuted.

During Salem’s witch trials more than 200 people faced accusations and 20 of them were put to death. Families suffered and were forever changed. What happened for a whole year changed lives forever

In both instances, the victims had committed no crime. Both the witch trials and The Holocaust show how people are scapegoated by others for crimes they did not commit. In both cases, societies allowed atrocities without stopping them until they became too drastic. Each horrific event was designed to purify society by eliminating all those who did not fit in. The Holocaust and The Crucible will be etched in the minds of people and inspire them to fight for their beliefs.

Women’s Roles In Ancient Egypt And Mesopotamia

Egyptian and Mesopotamian women’s roles and family life share many similarities, but also some differences. Both cultures have women who are the heart of their families, a mother or wife. Egyptian women are more powerful in their roles as women than those in Mesopotamia. Both cultures have strict marriage guidelines that are unique and disturbing. Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia valued women more if they were royal. In general, Egyptian women had more rights than Mesopotamian women when it came to marriages and property ownership. Although women’s roles in these two societies were different, they still resembled each other. Men treated them like slaves or property.

I find their approach to marriage and family very disturbing. Both cultures had young females marry around 12 years of age or puberty. In both cultures, young females are still in 6th or 7th grade and still working toward graduation high school. Both cultures have never given women the opportunity to make their decisions. In their culture, marriage is a social duty. Marriage is not a sacred and holy union in their society, but a union which appeals to the flesh.

The roles of Mesopotamian woman are clearly defined and strict. They were either the daughters of their husbands or wives. Today, this is common. Women can only act independently if they have a husband with power or status. Or, if she is royalty. She would be viewed as inferior if her spouse did not have a high-ranking position and was wealthy. This statement is a little off-base. I think men today love money more than they care about truth or righteousness. I do not believe that men should define a woman, because good men can be married to good wives and vice versa. Good husbands should also be married. In Mesopotamian culture, women without husbands were not regarded as having power or status. I believe that a wife is defined by her husband who shares the same beliefs about doing what is right in God’s eyes. God created woman and man. There is a specific man for each woman.

In Mesopotamia it was not uncommon for fathers to buy their daughters from them. However, this practice declined after 3000 BC. Women in Mesopotamia were allowed to do and go wherever they wanted as long as their husbands or widows gave them permission. This statement is true to some extent. I think it’s a bit much to ask permission of your husband for everything. Marriage is a family affair. The wife, in the traditional family, becomes part of their husband’s extended family. In Mesopotamian tradition, if a woman’s husband died, then she was to marry his brother or another male close relative.

How is it that a man who was a brother, relative or close friend of the deceased can marry his wife? It is ungodly to me. The ancient Egyptians also practiced this same thing. A woman Pharaoh was not allowed to marry a mortal. She was considered a divine being. Pharaohs choose spouses within their royal families. Hatshepsut for example married Thutmose her half brother. This seems to be a clean, holy practice. But I think a God anointed individual will consider it not holy.

Hammurabi code stated that wives are bought and resold in a large number. In Mesopotamia, women were expected to accept sexual advances from strangers in exchange for silver coins in order to fulfill their duty to the goddess. In this culture, women are treated like a slave. Women in Mesopotamia were not given any rights. They were treated like a wife. In Mesopotamian unions, the father of the groom held considerable influence. The groom’s father, for instance, could give a bride to a groom’s brother if the groom dies or is unhappy with his marriage. From a young age, women were trained to become wives, mothers, and housekeepers. They could not go to school if they came from a non-royal family, or one that was not run by priests and scribes. The women in this example are not respected and devalued.

In some ways, ancient Egypt’s marriage customs make more sense compared to Mesopotamia. Despite the fact that females were married so young, it was still up to their parents to choose the best partner for them. Women were said to be making more decisions for the family and controlling more of their home. It was not the husband’s responsibility to control all of his wife’s property. Ancient Egypt had more independence for women. Ancient Mesopotamian woman were treated with more respect and appreciation.

Egyptian wives are more respected and able to accept themselves. Egyptian law grants women the ability to initiate divorces and complete them. After marriage, women retained their ownership rights. Women were not permitted to inherit a husband’s property in Mesopotamia when there was a male heir. The Code of Hammurabi of the 18th century allowed women to divorce their husbands and have property in certain circumstances.

Ancient Egypt was a society where women and men were treated equally. In many ancient Egyptian paintings, women are seen supporting, clasping, and protecting their husbands. In some ways, then, a woman might be seen as a protector, perhaps associated with a protective goddess. Women in ancient Egypt were also skilled musicians, dancers or temple staff. Women are shown in tomb inscriptions and scenes depicting weaving workshops. Women were involved in politics, religion, and funerary affairs. Women in Mesopotamia were independent and equal to men. Contrary to Mesopotamian culture, women did not need to be slavishly controlled by their men or ask for their permission to go somewhere or do something. Women weren’t treated as individuals if the husband didn’t have a high-ranking position or status. In Egypt, women were treated with respect and more honor by men than Mesopotamian woman.

Egyptians prefer a female with royal blood to a male without royal blood. It makes sense. Anointed, or chosen by God is what we call a person with royal lineage. The person with royal blood is also referred to as a God’s servant. In Egyptian society, a royal-blooded person is also called a Pharaoh.

In ancient Egypt, women had daily routines to take good care of their family. She would wake up her husband, children, and pets at sunrise to go to work or school. She would prepare breakfast and clean the house afterwards. She ensured that the home was pest-free and free from rodents. Many women choose to work at home because of their busy schedules. Egyptian women are respected for their strong character. Also, they proved that Egyptian women are capable of almost anything; from running a household to providing for family.

Both cultures train their young women to be good mothers, wives and housekeepers from an early age. They played only this role in the society. This was brilliant. To train them so young, it made them more responsible and independent. Above all, they became a better wife. It was a great habit passed down from generation-to-generation; to be trained to become a woman and mother. It is a great honor to me that they have shared the role women play with other cultures. Hatshepsut is the most well-known of all the God’s women during the New Kingdom. She ruled Egypt from 1479-1458 BCE. She ruled Egypt for 20 years during the 15th century B.C. She’s considered to be one of Egypt’s best pharaohs. Hatshepsut was a very strange woman. She chose male gender and ruled as one throughout her reign. Hatshepsut should respect that men are in charge and considered to be the leaders.

Some of the powerful women in Mesopotamia are known as priestesses. Some families sold their daughters to temples, in exchange of a family priestess. Families also sold their daughters as prostitution and slaves. Mesopotamian at the time did not see this as degrading or wrong. In their temple, they called it a form of sacred prostitution. Egypt has a different role for women than Mesopotamia. God’s Amun Wife was a position of importance in the religion. God’s Women were women of high status who assisted in the ceremonies of the high-priest and took care of the gods. As time went on, their position grew. In the Third Intermediate Period (between 1069 and 525 BCE), Amun’s God’s Woman was a powerful woman who ruled Upper Egypt.

Interesting to me was the Egyptian philosophy that states women cannot tempt or seduce men sexually. For this reason, they believe that marriage stability is important for a healthy community. Thus, it is in everyone’s interest to stay together. Egyptians deeply believed that life on earth was a part of a journey to eternity and that people should make their partner’s life, marriage included, worthwhile. I now agree completely with how the Egyptians view marriage and their relationship to each other. In ancient Egypt, women played a very similar role to those in modern society. Today’s women are married and have children. She can become a mother who works or is a stay-at-home mom. A woman has the right to choose her husband and can divorce. Women can decide whether to start a family or not with their husband. Women can work in a job that is dominated by men, such as the military. Egypt has left a large mark on our culture. Mesopotamia had a similar influence. Egypt and Mesopotamia both became major civilizations between 3500-3000 BCE. It was the first time that humans settled down to farm instead of hunting animals for food. Agriculture was the center of their civilization. They were based in nature and worshipped many deities. Social class structure included: ruling, middle, lower, and slave classes. The majority of women in Mesopotamia lived as slaves and were of lower class because their husbands treated them badly. My opinion is that the middle and upper class did not mean much because women were treated badly by their husbands. My opinion is that women are only treated with respect when they become priestesses or gods. Mesopotamian women value gods and priestesses more than ordinary women. To me, the status of a goddess or priestess is all that differentiates them from ordinary women. Egyptian women have a higher level of independence, value, and respect than Mesopotamian woman. Christianity changed marriage and how women and men should behave.

The Rebirth Of Science And Medicine In Hellenistic Greece And Rome

Greece went through a period where it was enlightened in terms of science and art from the 300s BCE until the beginnings of the 1st century. Greece made discoveries during this time of economic and social revival that changed the world. Ptolemy made great advances in mathematics, creating the earliest trigonometric functions table known and creating the standard geometry book. Science, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics were the most important advances. Though some ideas didn’t become fully established until the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution, in the 16th Century, they opened the door to a world that was previously unknown. It is not widely known that Hellenistic medical and scientific ideas are still used today. Even simple textbooks like geometry teach the same concepts today as they did centuries ago. Even simple things like a geometry book are still used today to teach people the same things they did hundreds of years ago.

Eratosthenes’ calculations of the earth’s circumference, and his first map, were among the most important discoveries of Hellenistic Science. The geographer used sundials placed around 100 meters apart to calculate that the earth’s circumference was close to 25,000 kilometers, or 200 miles less than the modern calculation. Martianus, for example, made other claims regarding the Earth. Eratosthenes was also involved in the first map. This map was more accurate than any other map at the time. It included latitudes and longitudes. The map he created gave his time a better understanding of the Earth and its geography. Posidonius’ calculations of the circumference of earth and modern geography were based on these two discoveries. Christopher Columbus and other explorers would never have considered venturing west in search of a route from the Atlantic Ocean to India if not for Eratosthenes’ calculations. Eratosthenes may have prevented the discovery of the “New World”, and hundreds of explorers would have never had the chance to find land in the west.

Archimedes was another Hellenistic scientist who changed the world. Archimedes invented the compound pulley and formulated the law of floating body, which he called the Archimedes Principle. Archimedes created the compound pulling system, a tubular water pump that rotates to draw water upwards. The compound pulley was used by farmers for thousands of years to move water uphill. One of his other inventions is the Archimedes Principle. He claimed that an object submerged completely or partially in liquid would lose the same weight as the liquid it is displaced from. The formula was revolutionary in the field of shipbuilding as it allowed for better stabilization of floating vessels. Archimedes’ discoveries had a direct effect on his world. Compound screws allowed farmers to transport more water higher than before. Archimedes’ principle allowed for increased ship stability as well as a way to weigh objects of irregular shape by measuring the displacement of water. Even how future submarines and ships will sink is described by the principle. Archimedes’ impact on science is still felt today, even though he did not know it at the time.

Herophilus was the first Hellenistic scientist to dissect a human body and to investigate the functions of brain parts and arteries. He was the first to begin dissecting human bodies after moving to Alexandria. Erasistratus his younger co-worker, also a scientist, helped him. Herophilus investigated the anatomy and inner workings in his dissections. Herophilus illustrated the brain in detail and also the arteries. In the brain’s case, he could distinguish the different parts of it and their functions. He distinguished between motor and sensory neurons in a discrete manner, showing his deep understanding of the nervous systems. Herophilus found that arteries only contain blood, and not air or blood and oxygen as Aristotle thought. Herophilus also discovered the function of arteries, which is to carry blood from heart to body. New theories about how the human body functions were created as a result of further examination. Herophilus disproved the four humors theory, on which the Church had been relying for centuries. His brain diagrams revealed new neuronal building blocks and new hypotheses. The discovery that arteries had a function laid the basis for William Harvey and other doctors of the 1500s. Although his achievements were little known at the time, they made a significant contribution to our understanding of human anatomy.

Erasistratus continued Herophilus’s rejection of the four humors. Erasistratus is a contemporary to Herophilus. In Alexandria, he investigated Herophilus’ works further and discovered his own discoveries. Erasistratus studied physiology, primarily the structure and function of parts of living organisms. Erasistratus’ studies allowed him to learn a lot about the valves in the heart, and how they function. Erasistratus used his physiological studies to explain digestion and respiration processes, as well as those of the vascular system, to differentiate between veins and arteries (Lindberg 121). Erasistratus was also of the opinion that arteries contain pneuma. He believed this stimulated tiny particles in the human bodies, transporting them throughout the body. The explanations of the time were very impressive. Some parts are still used today. Erasistratus opposed humoral theories of disease in a similar way to Herophilus. But he was more adamant. He opposed the use of bloodletting to cure disease (bleeding the four humors), a practice that had been used for centuries (Koletsis). In response, he received criticism from many. The extent of the claims was not understood at the time. But they did change the face and nature of anatomy, so much that scientists were unable to return to the humoral theories. These discoveries, together with Herophilus’, formed the basis for physiology, anatomy, and morphology. Galen used his careful dissections to further investigate the human body almost four centuries after Herophilus.

Hipparchus was a remarkable man who dedicated himself to mathematics and the stars. He compiled a catalogue of fixed stars in the sky, as well as the Precession of the Equinoxes. Hipparchus, a man of great intellect and dedication to mathematics and the heavens, compiled a catalog of fixed stars and created the Precession of the Equinoxes. Hipparchus compiled a list of over 850 fixed, non-moving stars. One example is the north star Polaris. In 129 BCE this was a significant achievement. But he also created the first star chart. He helped sailors to navigate by providing a way of determining the direction. Hipparchus developed the Precessions Equinoxes as a way to explain the rotation of our sky. He noted that his measurements of stars had been altered, indicating the earth’s movement, and not that of the stars. Hipparchus used this discovery to describe the movement of the Earth in new ways. He went on to calculate the time that constellations were to appear in certain locations. He also calculated the time of the solstices, equinoxes and other events (Lindberg 1998). These discoveries led other astronomers to discover other phenomena. Ptolemy made use of Hipparchus’ catalogues of stars and other discoveries to suggest an astronomy that revolved around circles. He also accurately predicted planetary positions. Unlike other scientists who were celebrated at the time, Hipparchus’ work wasn’t noticed by greek society until after the Scientific Revolution. Astronomers now recognize his contribution to the world and have been able to understand it.

Aristarchus, a Samos man, is also important, but not as much so as Hipparchus. Aristarchus was known as the Hellenistic Copernicus for his heliocentrism work and calculations about the size of universe. His suggestion of a system heliocentric in which the sun is fixed and the earth revolves around it was criticized (Lindberg, 95). Even though he felt he had the right theory, it was rejected by his peers because of its conflict with Aristotle’s theories, Jewish ideas and Christian beliefs. It took 1800 years before a scientist could prove the heliocentrism. Aristarchus had the original idea, even though Copernicus has been credited with the proof. Aristotle was also the first to grasp the true size of the Universe (Koletsis). In the past, people didn’t look beyond the sky, since they believed that beyond the Solar System was a land of angels and gods. Aristarchus questioned this belief when he observed that the stars were immobile. He then expanded the size the universe to a much greater extent than was previously accepted. The 16th-century Scientific Revolution proved this, too. Aristarchus may not have proved his own hypotheses, but both set the stage for modern space exploration. He was the person who first changed the perception of people about the relative size and position of earth and sun. It is impossible to ignore his work, which is a testament to his incredible mathematical and science abilities as well as his intelligence to create ideas that were superior to accepted ones.

The modern world is shaped by the contributions of each scientist in this document. Erasistratus and the heliocentrism idea are at the forefront of all astronomy research and circulatory studies. Scientists such as Archimedes or Eratosthenes made discoveries, while physicians Herophilus or Erasistratus conducted research. Astronomers Hipparchus or Aristarchus also observed the sky. These discoveries led to many discoveries that we still use today. Hellenistic medical and scientific discoveries are on par with the Scientific Revolution from the English Renaissance. The ideas that were developed over the next 2 000 years led to a new phase of scientific thought, which forever changed the face of the earth. Who knows when we would have understood the human body or the sun as the center of our universe if it wasn’t for the scientists. These concepts are so important that we wouldn’t even dream of going beyond the stars. They deserve to be appreciated more.

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