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Category: History Essays Samples Page 1 of 2

Nazi Camps During The World War Ii

We all know of the Nazi camps that existed during World War II. From 1933 to 1945, they were a key characteristic of Nazi Germany’s regime. Many people don’t realize that these camps were merely genocide sites. Therefore, I’ll go deeper to tell you more about these Nazi camps. Types Of Camps There were several types of Nazi camps. The first camps to emerge in Germany were the early camps. They were often lacking in infrastructure and under the supervision of their superiors. The SA guarded state camps, also known as storm troopers, and were prototyping sites for future concentration camps. (Dachau seen in the top photograph, Esterwegen). Hostage camp was also known as police prison cells. These camps were home to hostages who were later executed in reprisal action. (Haaren, Michielsgestel)Labour camps were concentration camps where captives had to perform hard labor under inhumane conditions and cruel treatment. (Stammlager and Aussenlager). Prisoner of War camps were places where enlisted prisoners were kept after being captured.

Many prisoners were sent quickly to labor camp. (Arbeitskommandos)Work Instruction camps were camps where the “rehabilitation and re-education of ethnic Poles” according to the Nazi values were held. The transit and collection camps were places where prisoners were temporarily or permanently held until they were sent to the main camps. (Sammellager, Durchgangslager)Extermination camps were the camps whose main function was genocide. Gassing was used most often to accomplish this. (Treblinka, Belzec). Poland was home to many of these camps as it had the largest Jewish community. Some of these were a mixture between extermination and concentration camps, such as Majdanek or Auschwitz. Pre-War CampsThe very initial of these camps, which were called the “early camps”, was built in Germany on January 1933. This happened shortly after Hitler took office as Chancellor. In order to hold the large number of suspected or actual political opponents, the SA, SS, local authorities and police established these camps throughout Germany in just weeks. More than 3.5 million Germans were detained in camps during the Nazi regime. The Esterwegen Camp, Germany was an example of such a camp. This camp held political opponents like Karl Von Ossietzky (German author). Karl von Ossietzky, a Nazi opponent and pacifist, was imprisoned at Esterwegen in just a few months after receiving the Nobel Prize of Peace for 1936. The Nazis had a problem with Karl von Ossietzky, who was awarded the Nobel Prize. They couldn’t kill him since he was known throughout the world at the time. Under close observation by the Gestapo, he ended up being transferred to a nearby hospital. The end of the First World War was not the end. Following the start of World War II, concentration camps turned into places where millions of people were held captive. New Nazi concentration camps were established for the “undesirables” during the war. These “undesirables” were political opponents, Jews, homosexuals as well communists, communists, and Polish intelligencesia members. Prisoners were required to wear identification overalls with colored badges. Red triangles were for communists and other political prisoners. Green triangles were for common criminals. Purple triangles were for Jehovah’s Witnesses. Black triangles were for asocials. Later, the yellow triangle was for Jews. Treatment Many prisoners died at the concentration camps as a result of starvation or disease, or because they were considered unfit to work. Many prisoners died in the trains before they reached their destination. This train can accommodate 50 people. However, it often holds more than 200 prisoners.

Many were either dehydrated in summer heat or frozen to death during winter. To provide labor for the forced, many subcamps were created near factories in 1942. IG Farben built a synthetic-rubber plant in 1942 at Monowitz concentration prison (Auschwitz III); many other camps were located near the airplane factories, coke mines and rocket propellant factories. The conditions were harsh and prisoners were frequently sent to gas chambers or executed on the spot if they didn’t work fast enough. The camps became medical experiment sites after the war. There were many experiments at the camps, including Eugenics experiments and freezing prisoners to test how pilots who were killed in combat. Sigmund Rasser performed cold water immersion trials at Dachau concentration prison. Liberation Between 1944 and 1945, the Allied forces liberated the camps. On July 23, 1944, the Soviets discovered Majdanek as the first major camp. Auschwitz was also liberated by Soviets in January 1945. Buchenwald was captured by the Americans April 11, 1945. Bergen-Belsen and Dachau were captured by the Americans and Ravensbruck respectively on April 29, 1945. Mauthausen and Mauthausen were taken over by Soviets May 5, and Theresienstadt by Soviets May 8. Nearly all of those held in the camps were expelled. There were only a few thousand survivors.

Many of those who survived the war died weeks later from other illnesses such as malnutrition, typhus or malnutrition. Treblinka and Sobibor were not liberated by the Nazis, but they were destroyed in 1943. Post-War Use Even though most Nazi concentration or extermination camps were destroyed during the war effort, others were used for holding German Prisoners of War and other purposes. The museums and permanent memorials that were left standing in the camps were made. Auschwitz Concentration Camp is among the remaining camps. This is the Camp that bears the famous sign ‘work makes us free’ in German.

Visitors today follow a tour guide who takes them around the camps, telling stories about survivors and providing information. These horrible camps were finally destroyed 12 years later. These horrific places’ aftermath will not be forgotten. The physical and mental torture that was inflicted on the victims resulted in many innocent deaths, broken families, and psychological trauma for survivors. Today is the International Holocaust Memorial Day. It is a time to honor and remember the millions upon millions of Holocaust survivors and victims. As such, I urge everyone in the audience to observe a minute silence every year on this day to remember the Holocaust survivors and victims. This is a day to reflect on the past and ensure that the next generation does not repeat it.

Depiction Of Dehumanization In Night By Elie Wiesel

The Holocaust was a mass dehumanization of millions. Dehumanization can be defined as the deprivation of human potential or of individuals. There are numerous examples that demonstrate and illustrate dehumanization throughout history and Elie Wilesel’s Night. Examples of dehumanization include: when the Jews were given the star David, their numbers and the relationship among the prisoners and the guards with the prisoners.

The Davids patch was required to be worn by the Jews in Wiesel’s Night. Elie’s father stated that “The yellow Star?” It’s not lethal. It’s not fatal.” This assertion would be proven false. The star placed them above all others and made them targets. This was one of many tactics used by the Jews to dehumanize other Jews. The numbers were used to substitute for names by the jews while they were in camp. Wiesel said, “I was A-7713.” “I had no other name from that point on.” Wiesel stated, “I became A-7713. It was just a random assortment of letters and numbers. The Nazis took the names of the people and a part of their humanity. Another problem faced by the Jews was that they were also forced to choose between merchandise or cattle. This is a clear example of how prisoners came to view each other as animals and objects. Kapos are the ones who point at Wiesel’s father and Wiesel. They have special authority to make other prisoners miserable. The prisoners needed to forget everything in order to survive and could even have to use one another to save themselves. Wiesel describes, “One of the prisoners took a piece from his bag and placed it in a wagon. A large group of people rushed forward all at once. Dozens upon dozens of hungry men struggled for a handful of crumbs. “The worker watched the spectacle closely.” This quote confirms that Jews were not treated with respect. Hitler created an image that made Jews seem worthless and terrible, which was accepted in the country.

Wiesel claims “…climb inside the cars. There were eighty people. “We had about 100 people in this wagon. Twelve of them left it.” These quotes demonstrate the progress of bodies in cattle cars over time. After being starved, they started with 80. They eventually reached 100. Only twelve of them survived. Prisoners arrived at the camps by a variety of means. Most commonly, they traveled by train. But, if they were closer to their destination, they could travel by foot.

Although they were not usually told where they were going, it was often stated that they were being sent to the east. Most prisoners heard rumors about camps in the east and their conditions by the 1940s. These fears and anxieties, along with the past experiences, could have caused crippling fear. While the trip to the camps was usually a few days long, others could take several weeks. It was often impossible for prisoners to sit or kneel on their transports. An average transport could hold approximately 1000 people.

The Nazis used dehumanization as a deliberate tactic. They caused mental and physical suffering to people. They made them feel like machines and stopped them from feeling or reacting. The Jews stopped resisting death and were no longer afraid of it. They accepted that death was their fate. The star of David was given to the Jews, along with their numbers and the relationships between prisoners. This is how the Jews were transported. All of these are important to consider when discussing “dehumanization”.

A Policy Of Imperialism In America

The United States pursued an imperialism policy from the late 1800s to the early 1900s that was later called Social Darwinism. America’s Imperialist Age had positive effects on both the military world and the economic worlds. The United States considered the colonies to be vital to its military strength. Both imperialism and militarianism were connected. Because imperialism meant having the upper hand over the weaker. America needed a strong military in order to be the strongest nation and take power.

America is not the next European to take control. Military power was an imperial form of strength in the 19th century. A strong military is essential to safeguard its interests and implement its policies. “Seeing other nations establishing a global presence in military affairs, American leaders recommended that the United States strengthen its own military power” (Holt 549). Strong armies, navies, and trade protection were essential to ensure the United States’ security and to defend it against foreign threats. Admiral Alfred T. Mahan from the U.S. Navy urged officials to increase and invest in the American navy power” (Holt 559) This was done to be competitive with other countries. Leaders and governments who fail to keep their armies and navy strong are often deemed less or weaker than the leaders of other nations. This wasn’t just a positive effect. Modern technology allowed American factories and farms the ability to produce far more than the average American household could consume in the latter part of the 19th century. The United States needed more material to make its products and new markets.

“Imperialists believed that foreign trade was the only way to solve American overproduction and other problems, such as unemployment and economic recession” (Holt 559). The motive for European imperialism in nineteenth-century Europe was to ensure that the colonies’ economies would benefit from imperialism. Social Darwinism was a concept that some Americans developed. “The belief in free-market competition leading to the survival and the best” (Holt 555) America was growing rapidly and reaching the top in the world’s economy. Many believed that America had a responsibility to assist the poor. The American economy developed and produced more goods which made the country richer and contributed to the economic boom.

Overall, imperialism was the main factor in the United States becoming stronger. It forced the country’s interests to be protected and supported by its policies. They also contributed to the growth of technology and increased production.

Cesar Chavez And The Rights For Farm Workers

“From the depths of despair and need, people can work together, and can organize themselves to solve own problems and fulfill their own needs with dignity, strength, and that is Cesar E.Chavez’s quote. He describes his leadership skills and believes he must take leadership to bring unity among people. Chavez’s speech begins by introducing the church, making respectful remarks about it, then he discusses his personal experiences with the church, and why he feels that the church should be more concerned about Farmworkers. His experience shows that he wants to reach out and share his perspective with his audience. This is because he is concerned about those who work so hard for food production, but the church has no remorse. He is also trying his audience to join him. Louis Harris polls found that 17 million Americans had voted for the grape boycott in 1975. This tells him how many Americans he wants to persuade into his cause against the Catholic Church. Cesar Chavez uses an emotional speech to show fairness to farm workers. He also shares his knowledge of farm workers’ struggles.

Cesar, a Mexican-American labor leader, worked tirelessly to unite the people. Chavez was a man who spent his entire life working to improve the lives, conditions and pay rates of farm workers. He was young and had to endure the same struggles that current farm workers face. Chavez’s willingness to help raise awareness for farm workers is an impressive act. He first-hand experienced the struggles of farm workers and feels it wasn’t fair. Chavez began to notice red flags in the church. “Why do protestants come here and help people, demand nothing and give all of their time to farm workers, while our priests stay at their churches?” It raises questions about why a church as holy could not help those in need who have given up their time to work in the community and produce crops. Chavez was committed to improving the working conditions of farm workers. He attended Delano meetings in an effort to bring together all of them, but it was refused by the Priests. Chavez finally decided that the strike was a matter for all farm workers. Chavez is strongly attached to the church as well as the farm workers. The church is described as “an international ecumenical body, not just one in a particular community”, which allows Chavez to describe how the church can make an impact on people’s lives. He passionately tries to persuade them of its importance. Cesar describes the church he is protesting while boldly adding it to his description. This allows him to feel a deep connection with his passion for the church and the positive impact it has on his life and those he wants to spread awareness for. “The church that we are discussing is a tremendously strong institution in our country, and in this world,” Cesar says. However, he admits to admiring the beautiful church and the seriousness that poverty is in his community. And how the church is going to be fighting for them. Chavez is also very fond of farm workers. As a former worker, he has first-hand experience with the difficulties and hardships that they face. This speech contains feelings of sympathy for the farm workers as well as hurt at the church’s inaction.

Cesar Chavez led an incredible movement that made history. He brought hope to those who didn’t have any. Cesar started his protest as a result of trying to join the church to keep farmworkers under virtual enslavement. The protest led to the uprising by the poor against their church. “Chavez realized that it would not take a union to lift these burdens. It would need a movement,” this is the reason Chavez has led this movement for Farm Workers. Chavez has been the most credible leader in this fight against the Catholic church. To back his claim that church doesn’t care much about the poor, he exposed “the Catholic charities agents of the Catholic Church have millions earmarked just for them.” He discusses how often the money that the church has invested goes to feeding the hungry.

Chavez was an inspirational speaker who wanted to help people with problems and situations. He was motivated to help Farmworkers gain freedom. He wanted to join the church as he believed they were a group that focused on helping others. This speech addressed a situation in which a church cared only about itself and not about others. Chavez’s 1965 essay attempted to convince his audience to join his movement to improve the lives of the less privileged.

Freedom Or Slavery: Analysis Of Patrick Henry’s Speech In The Virginia Convention

“Give it me liberty or I will die,” these famous words were spoken at the Virginia Convention speech, “The Speech In The Virginia Convention,” which Patrick Henry addressed. It was specifically President Randolph’s March of 1775 address. Henry respectfully shares his opinion on the American response to the British conflict. Henry, unlike most other convention members, believes they should approach conflict peacefully. However Henry considers it necessary for them to prepare for war should Britain not comply with colonists orders. Patrick Henry spoke at the Virginia Convention and stated that America should go to war. He also argued that America should be prepared to seize control of Britain if Britain does not comply with its commands.

Patrick Henry, a Virginia Convention member, argues that the colonists should seize Britain and go into war. This is by confronting their current treatment. Henry encourages the convention “to listen to that siren’s song till she transforms our bodies into beasts,” and he refers to the Odyssey as a mythological allusion. Henry is metaphorically comparing Circe’s false hope to the British by luring them onto her island. The false hope of Britain dehumanizes colonists by playing on their emotions, such as anger and sadness. This is called pathos. Henry also mentions the British’s “insidious Smile” with which the petition has been recently received. Henry’s use of the phrase “insidious glance” is a reference to misleading language that would appeal to pathos. Henry confronts colonists and says that they “having eye, see not” and “having ear, hear not.” Henry uses Ezekial 12,:2 to draw attention to pathos. According to the bible, those who cannot see or hear God’s truth will lose their spiritual salvation. He uses this analogy to explain how the British treat colonists. Patrick Henry uses many rhetorical tactics such as allusions and biblical references to confront the British’s treatment of colonists. Patrick Henry uses the example of Britain as “the next gale sweeps” to describe the British military’s progress as a gale from the north. Henry uses this metaphor to explain that the British cannot be stopped by men alone just like a storm can’t stop a storm. This makes it clear that the British will only win the war if God gives them His power. If they don’t give their all to fighting, they’ll be crushed. Patrick Henry shows the consequences of colonists not going to war by explaining it to them as “question or freedom or slavery.” This refers to the need to fight to libert. Because he wants to convince them of the British rule/slavery as an alternative to war, this appeals to emotion. The colonists would be frightened and angry if they were to accept slavery. Patrick Henry used numerous rhetorical appeals for colonists to ask what would happen if they didn’t go into war.

Patrick Henry connects everything he has said about confronting colonists and the consequences of not going to war. He explains that their divine, God-given rights to go to arms with Britain are connected by his statement. Henry says that the colonists must fulfill the “great responsibility which God holds to us.” He uses ethos to appeal to God’s authority. Henry is calling upon God’s truth to show that the colonists have the divine right to seize control of their destiny. Patrick Henry also explained that the colonists should not go to war if they do not want to. He was explaining that this would be a disloyalty to God. This is to demonstrate that God’s authority goes beyond the authority of the kings of Britain. Henry interwoven many references of God throughout his speech to connect all the points.

Patrick Henry asserts that colonists must break with Britain. He confronts the truth of colonists’ treatment and explains the consequences of not going to war. Henry supported his arguments with rhetorical appeals. He used metaphors, diction and metaphors to make the case for independence.

John Adams: An Embodiment Of Ethics And Patriotism

John Adams was born October 19th 1735 in Braintree Massachusetts. His family, like many New Englanders, were farmers. John’s family had owned the home he grew-up in for many generations. The Adams home had two levels. The upstairs was composed of two bedrooms, while downstairs consisted of a large kitchen and a family area with a fireplace. Johns dad, Johns, was a deacon in the local church Johns grew up in. Johns father also worked as an artisan shoemaker to support his family. John’s father had been married in his 40s by the time he was born. John was one of the oldest three children. He loved spending time with his siblings and helping with farm chores. John was also an avid hunter and fisherman like the farm boys of his generation. However, John was a solid student and was taught science, philosophy, Latin, writing and Latin. John loved to hunt squirrels and rabbits in the New England woods.

John’s father was strict about John’s education. John loved farming and enjoyed his dad’s discipline. His father hoped that John would be able to go on to a higher-paying profession like a priest. Johns father worked hard at the farm to show John what it was like being a farmer. John’s father would often ask John his opinion after a hard day’s work on the farm. John would then reply with a tired tone that “I like doing it well father!” His father also got John his former pastor, Rev. John was tutored by Joseph Marsh. John responded quickly to the change despite his strict new teacher. John had been under Rev. Marsh for 18 months. John Marsh was at 15 years of age and was ready to apply at Harvard University. It was not unusual for adolescents boys to be freshman in a university at that time. Harvard University was regarded as a college of regiments during a time when many people did not go to college. John was a lucky young man to have been admitted to Harvard. Harvard was not a popular university at the time, as many boys who went to Harvard were from more aristocratic families. John’s family was also a Harvard alumni. It was almost nepotism for their sons be accepted into Harvard. John found Harvard a fun place to live, despite being a student from a lower socioeconomic background than the rest of his classmates. His Harvard experience was full of many challenges and opportunities that helped him grow. John Adams was entering his senior year of Harvard in 1755. He had yet to choose a career. John Adams was raised by his dad to be a minister, but he didn’t think that was possible. John also recognized his inability to handle the pressures of preaching from a pulpit. John also appreciated his independence, which he couldn’t have as a clergyman. As a result, many New England students were attracted to the fields of law and medicine by universities like Harvard. However, clergymen were still considered highly respected. John contemplated becoming a lawyer as he would not have to be so concerned about pleasing everyone. John’s father, a deacon, often saw lawyers as people who are more concerned with their clients than they are themselves.

John was interested in a career in law, but he sometimes felt confused about why he chose this profession. John was passionate about being well-known and recognized, some traits that were consistent with his religious background. John received a job as a teacher of Latin at the Worcester grammar, west of Boston, after he graduated from Harvard. John saw this job as a temporary assignment until he realized if he really wanted to be a lawyer or follow in his father’s footsteps and become a priest. John was unhappy with his life. Worcester was not as big as Boston. It also didn’t offer as many opportunities for socializing as Harvard. However, John did enjoy the Harvard campus’s social activities. John became a strict, short-tempered schoolmaster, much like his childhood teachers. He had to deal with students who couldn’t speak the alphabet and correct their pronunciations. John began to see his students as lazy, boring, and ignorant. John was frequently invited to the homes of Worcester’s most prominent residents to have tea or dinner and to discuss the latest events in the region. John was frequently invited to Worcester’s most important residents to have tea or dinner, and to discuss the latest events in the Boston area.

John didn’t want to become a priest, as he thought the medical field would be a lot more work than it was worth and result in little recognition. John also had doubts about Braintree’s perception of the legal profession. He believed that lawyers were people who create more problems than solve them, and make themselves rich at the expense others’ poverty. John would be offered more opportunities as a lawyer. John was unable to please his father, because many people in his hometown saw lawyers in a negative light. John was about starting his second year in Worcester grammar school headmaster when he realized he could no more delay his decision not to study law. John wanted to move on and get out of his predicament. John even wondered how he could be successful in his legal studies. John struggled with these questions to the end. John then contacted James Putnam (the head lawyer in Worcester) to set up an apprenticeship. John didn’t intend to become a pastor, but he did want to practice law. James Putnam offered John the opportunity to study under him. John moved into James Putnam’s house, paying James Putnam the money he had saved at school for lodging and lessons.

It was not common for the first settlers to New England to have had lawyers before they arrived. But, once the British Commonwealth was viewed positively and loved by them, trust began to decline. To resolve any disputes between colonies, the legal profession was born. John would often argue that American lawyers were meant to defend the rights of a nation. John’s New England experiences were the catalyst for his faith and his choice of profession. John was drawn to the drama that unfolded in a courtroom during his time studying under James Putnam. John Adams, who had just completed his studies at James Putnam, was admitted to Massachusetts colony’s bar. In Braintree, he set up a small law office where he would deal with deeds, property taxes, wills and other matters. John often took cases concerning sexual assaults and libel. John also led protests against pubs when patrons got into brawls outside or inside the pubs. John eventually succeeded in obtaining an ordinance restricting the licensing of these bars. John became enamored of James Otis, another local lawyer, who participated in a case in which merchants from Boston rebelled against the fact they were having their ships broken into and had cargo stolen.

British customs officials had authorized actions through the writs to assist the British Crown. John was impressed by Otis’s speech at the trial, even though it only dealt with protecting the smugglers. John was left with a positive impression of the limits that British authority in colonies was supposed be. The British parliament introduced a new bill in 1767 that would impose duties upon products imported into the American colonies. The new legislation stated that these taxes were external and not internal because of how they were connected to foreign trading. John would strongly oppose any taxation without consent or representation. As the British parliament was discussing the new legislation on the matter, the British sent more troops to the colonies to strengthen any existing laws and to stop citizens who were opposed to it. After one American boy was killed by gunfire, many colonists wanted to challenge the British troops. They threatened to use their firearms to stop them. Uncontrollable mobs of people shouted “KILL THEM” and gun fire erupted. Crispus Attucks a mulatto, who had fought alongside the Caucasian colonists. Crispus Attucks was the first African American who fought for freedom.

Captain Thomas Preston, the commanding commander who ordered those shots to be fired, was arrested. John Adams was appointed to represent Captain Preston at the Boston Massacre trial. John accepted because he believed all people had the right of fair trial. John believed that a lawyer must be responsible for his country as well as the most powerful and infallible committees he is assigned to. Bostonians didn’t get it. It was hard to believe John would offer to be a representative for a man as shrewd as Captain Preston. Josiah Quincy, John’s attorney, and Josiah Quincy, another attorney for Captain Preston were both present witnesses who testified that Captain Preston had been forced to fire his muskets at civilians. John used dramatic tactics involving racial profile to remind the jury that some of the people who died were mulattos as well as Negroes and Negroes. John also spoke out strongly about self-defense. On June 6th 1767, a local election took place in Boston to elect a head court position. When running for office, candidates were required to refrain from doing anything for themselves. John Adams was elected to the court post with 418-536 votes.

The fine people of Boston were coming to terms with John Adams’s role on the court system. He didn’t like to play favorites with anyone. John decided to stay out of the public eye and settled for a patriotic profession that mixed sentimentality with disregarding any active shares he was naturally encouraged to take. John had put in a lot of effort to practice his occupation. John understood that no object was better than him and that he had always taken pride in the achievements of others. John was a practicing lawyer for some time now and was the Massachusetts state bar’s most successful man. John believed that admission to a public career like his would be a loss of his work and that it would expose him to anxiety and complications about his personal safety, family, or end up in poverty. Johns later described the emotions he felt upon accepting the office as very depressing. John sat down with a sense of deep presentiment and self-sacrifice. John accepted to pursue a public profession that would reward him for his intellectual disability and courage. John’s first foray into public life was what gripped him. Thankfully, it didn’t last long. John started feeling chest pains after his election to his new job.

John was able to recover from the injury, but it wasn’t serious. He had to leave his job due to this health problem. John was sitting in his office chair, immobile for a while. Then, he staggered down the hallway toward his wife, his complexion pale. He told her that he couldn’t bear to stay in the city any longer, and she agreed. John made the decision to return to Braintree, Massachusetts in 1771. John wished that he had the ability to do more and hoped God would grant him that power again. John was not able to fulfill his desires, his efforts were futile, and he felt that he was causing havoc for himself. John suffered from a debilitating health event that left him feeling sad and would occasionally feel nostalgic for the joy that his position had given him. It turned out that his faith in God was a good thing. John’s health was re-established by 1772 and he concluded that he was still needed to serve the Massachusetts colony. John purchased a home near Boston’s city courthouse, and returned to Boston. John promised to stay out of public affairs in the colony and town, because John believed that his own welfare, family, and life were too important. Therefore, he was determined to sacrifice for them. John believed he did his country a favor and that his recovery from anxiety is a blessing.

The British monarchy was imposing tyranny on the colonies in 1774. John had been surrounded by people since his return from Boston. John was called back to public life once more, as he couldn’t resist the unpleasant subjects. John continued his profession, and he took care of his personal affairs. He was an acute and frugal person who was raised in New England’s businesslike setting. John was also supported by his wife and children. John also had to participate in the political and potentially dangerous matters that were going on in the colonies. John was 38 and still young. He was well versed in public and personal laws. John’s temperament combined joy with boldness with prudence. John was also trusted as a trustworthy, active, and full of energy. All 13 colonies were now the same population as London England by this year. Paris was home to more than one million people, London had about a million and Boston, around 15,000 residents. As the colonies would be governed by one another, they were up in arms. Connecticut was considered democratic and New York, however, was considered to have more aristocratic social structure.

Merchants, clergy, lawyers and physicians made up the upper class of the colonial people. These different groups were often in conflict. The colonial assemblies owned the majority of land and were responsible for directing commerce. Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania were the middle class colonies. The middle classes consisted of shops keepers, carpenters. However, representatives from all these colonies were sent to Philadelphia on September 5th 1774. John Adams was among them. Despite their different occupations and social backgrounds, they all agreed that colonies were tired of being ruled by the British monarchy. Even though the British monarchy allowed the colonies the right to make their own laws, the King had to appoint them as judges. The only control that the colonists could have over these judges would be to manage their income.

As the congressional meeting got underway, all these men began to debate between themselves, wearing their knee-breeched pant, powdered blonde wigs with ponytails, buckled shoes, and black triangle head hats. This congressional meeting was held in the East wing. The door opened and the colonial representatives entered the room. The room was brightly lit and exuberant by the early morning sunlight, which the representatives appreciated. The walls were painted in a finely polished white. There was also a floor of dark stained wooden boards. Finally, there is a fireplace with white panels. The representatives took their places in a variety of black-painted armchairs made from hickorywood. John sat next to Thomas Cushing. John was absent from anything as important since the Boston massacre trials. John was not well enough to be summoned after a bout with illness. John remembered the promise he made to himself to be ethical even if it meant for others more than him. He also remembered how many people in his town didn’t like lawyers. John was used to participating in local meetings since his time as a school-master.

It was argued out loudly whether it was better to oppose the British Monarchy than to just humbly follow their lead. Also, each colony had its own problems, like being unable to appoint judges to their courts. The South Carolina representatives mentioned that laws passed in response to the Massachusetts Bay had adversely affected all of North America. John stood up to ask the delegates how they would vote. Will it be one vote per colony or a plurality? First debate went to those who wanted to cut ties with Britain’s Monarchy. The first debate of congress didn’t take place in order to seek independence from Britain. Congress had not received one vote from Joseph Galloway the leader, however. Galloway came up with a radical plan. A massive council for colonies would be formed. Members would come from each colony. All laws would have to be approved or renewed by either the American grand Council or the British Parliament. Galloway’s idea seemed unlikely as congress would not be able stop the shifting power in colonies. But the Continental Congress saw the potential in Galloway and set up the Continental Association. The colonists could stop any import, export, or consumption of goods that had been agreed to by congress with the help of this new organization.

These extraordinary political changes didn’t happen because colonists were against British imperial reform. The British attempted to reorganize the empire in a complex environment. Some cases that were politically motivated had more to do with the escalating conflict between the colonies, the British monarchy and other countries. John awoke on Friday, 28 October, and made his way towards the bedroom in the inn. He opened the bedroom’s shutters and gazed out over the cobbled streets, seeing that it was raining and thundering as he did so. John, still wearing his nightshirt, was looking out at the windows and deciding to return home. John got up, changed into his clothes and looked at the dimly lit room. John went downstairs for breakfast, then waited for his coach. He arrived at 8 AM. John’s 13-day journey home seemed to be a constant. After reaching Elizabeth Town Point, John’s coach and horses were transferred onto ferryboats that took them 6 miles to Staten Isle. John turned 39 on the day.

John was shocked to learn that New Yorkers were feeling dissatisfied with the continental congress events upon his arrival. John met with other Massachusetts congress participants, and they made their way together to New Haven. There was much celebration.

New Haven also sent messengers 20 miles ahead to alert them of congress members’ arrival. The document was already printed and broadcast, so the Tories were kept busy. John was familiar with pamphlets that were being promoted on New Haven’s streets. John and the other Massachusetts representatives were delighted by the warm welcome. John had never visited Massachusetts before the summoning down to Philadelphia. John was finally able to return home to Abigail, his wife and their three children, after several months. The word about John’s involvement in the Philadelphia congress meeting spread fast. Congress could not do much at this point except to supply proclamations. Massachusetts would need its own resources to avoid importing British products if it felt the need to resist British attempts to discipline it.

How Westward Expansion Affected The United States

Westward Expansion was actually a series involving a number of events that led people to move west and expand the United States. This movement was influenced largely by manifest destiny.

Manifest destiny refers to people who believe God has directed the United States from the Atlantic Ocean toward the Pacific Ocean. They used the expression “sea-to-shining sea” often. These people had big dreams. These people were willing to take risks in order to have a better life. Although the journey was difficult, they persevered with hard work and planning.

Many reasons prompted people to move west. You could be looking for more land or gold, a better way to live your life, or the belief that Manifest Destiny is real. The land was good for agriculture and farmers moved there to have more. The East was very crowded with many immigrants. Everybody wanted more land and wanted to leave. More land means more farmers and more wealth. People wanted to buy lots of gold that was found in West Texas. Some people moved because there were more advancements. There were many transportation innovations made by new people with new ideas. The steamboat, the steam locomotive and railroads were just a few examples of transportation advances. Millions took advantage of the opportunity to reach greater heights. While there were many positive things that could be achieved by moving west, it is important to do so first.

There were many reasons why so many people died on the road. Many of those who traveled west didn’t have enough food and water. Most people didn’t have enough food and water for their journey. You’ll die if you don’t have enough food, bullets, or a wagon that doesn’t move.

These are just a few of the many reasons why people die. Bad weather, natural barriers and Native Americans can all be encountered while you travel. Bad weather can come in many forms, including heavy rains, snow, and extremely cold temperatures. Extreme temperatures and heavy rain can cause severe damage to your supplies. Not only did they get sick, but also from poor food and contaminated drinking water.

Natural barriers, such as mountains, can also make it difficult to cross. Native Americans were another problem. Native Americans were not happy with people moving onto their land and so often killed those who traveled. Their livestock is also a factor in people’s deaths. Other diseases that could be passed on to the oxen may also cause death. Your wagon will stop moving without your oxen. This could eventually lead to your death. Why haven’t people moved sooner?

We didn’t always own all of this land. How did we obtain all this land? To get the land that we now have, many purchases were made. All of these important factors played a role in the United States’s acquisition of all the land.

Thomas Jefferson in 1803 purchased huge amounts of land from France as the Louisiana Purchase. He bought approximately 530,000,000 acres for 15 Million Dollars, and it doubled America’s size.

Mexico had a portion of the United States land called the Mexican Cession. Mexico was bound to cede this land under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

The Gadsden buy was an 1853 contract to purchase a parcel of land in Mexico. This land was purchased at a cost of 10 million dollars. Last, but not least, Texas’s statehood.

Mexico was invaded by the Texans in 1845. Texas is a bigger state than the United States, which meant that Texas was able to add some land. We wouldn’t be where we currently are without these movements. There were many routes and trails that lead West. These trails included the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail and Oregon Fur Trade.

The Oregon Trail was one of the most important trails. It was built by fur trappers and traders from 1811-1840. Only horseback and foot could be used to travel the trail. The Oregon Trail ran from Missouri through Washington. Most pioneers moved west on it around 1843. One in 10 people who traveled the Oregon Trail died from some kind of disease.

William Becknell established the Santa Fe Trail, a route covering 800 miles. It ran from Missouri up to Santa Fe Mexico. It was popularly used as a trade route for international traders. The Oregon Fur Trade, which was basically a trade in furs that followed Lewis and Clark’s trail into the Rockies, was known as the Oregon Fur Trade. They built relationships with Native Americans to discover a route through the mountain ranges that was 10 miles long. Many people found this helped them get through what was often the most difficult part. Many people moved west for many reasons. Manifest Destiny played a significant role in many people moving west.

Essay On The Great Depression And The New Deal

From 1929 to 1941, the Great Depression saw many US economies crash. Many of America’s richest people lost their wealth as the economy was based on only the top 5 percent. Millions of workers became unemployed, and many businesses went under. People who were unable to pay their monthly installments on time cut back on credit purchases. Comparing to the eight previous years, suicide rates have increased by 50%. The stock market plunged by $30 billion within the first week. That’s roughly 406 billions at today’s price. Many banks shut down, while other banks struggled for survival. Federal reserve increased interest rates to discourage borrowing. Many Americans have stopped investing in stocks, no matter how much money is available.

American exports had fallen to the lowest prices since 1905. This was after nearly 90 thousand failed businesses and a 60% drop in corporate profits. Roosevelt also declared the New Deal in that year. Roosevelt declared a national Bank day to close all banks. Three days later, Roosevelt declared a national Bank holiday to close all banks. FDR received nothing from Democrats or Republicans unless he had a written copy of the bill in less than four hours. This was an important change in the New Deal’s banking component. FDR was given the first relief program, Civilian Conservation Corps. (CCC), on March 31st. The Act established many thousand camps in the army format to provide housing, employment and health care for men aged 18-25. In just a few months, over 350,000 men received $30 per month and $25 was sent home to their families. The Civilian Conservation Corps had provided employment for more than 3,000,000 men by 1941. CCC only reached very few people who needed relief. Therefore, the Roosevelt administration established Federal Emergency Relief Administration(FERA) in order to provide more assistance. In its first year, the Act provided shelter, meals and health care for nearly 5 million people across the country. To provide immediate unemployment relief in winter 1933-1934, a temporary Act was created called Civil Work Administration (CWA). This program was created to help as many people as possible find work during winter. It employed 4 million people to work on federal and local projects that took place during winter.

Roosevelt administration announced the Agricultural Adjustment Act to aid agriculture in recovering from surplus production. This would help to lower the price of farm products. The Agricultural Adjustment Act helped farmers solve their problems. The Roosevelt administration then turned to the Industrial and Labor part of the New Deal to help recover the industrial. The National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA), a compromise between Roosevelt’s advisors, was approved in June 1933. Two new agencies, National Recovery Administration (NRA), as well as Public Works Administrations (PWA), were created to merge both approaches. Hugh Johnson, an ex army general, led the National Recovery Administration. This agency reorganized national economic planning. Because price fixing allows for both higher profits and lower prices, businesses supported the NRA. Many industries had 2.5 million workers and displayed posters with the blue eagle symbolizing that they were covered under the National Recovery Administrations codes. PWA, on the other hand, provided jobs directly for construction workers. These jobs help to stimulate consumer demand and create new jobs. PWA became the federal largest public works program. It spent $6 million over six years to work with local and state governments to complete thirty-four thousand projects. These include roads, bridges and huge electricity dams. They also built new schools, hospitals, and aircraft carriers. The Tennessee Valley Authority ( TVA), which developed a regional approach for rural development in an area of forty thousand miles, was the most popular. This program benefits from flood control improvements and dam repairs.

The New Deal Roosevelt administration was designed to improve the country’s current areas such as agriculture, banking and industry. It also gave a lot more people jobs and income when needed. It helped the citizens and country to grow and to have a stable income so that they can live comfortably without relying on jobs. In addition to ensuring more regulation for business, Social Security and the Wagner Act, the New Deal created a legacy of more activist federal governments. The New Deal changed American thinking and expectations about government. It was able to help prevent depression, decrease unemployment and provide assistance for those who are in most need. The Americans prefer Roosevelt’s presidency to Congress as their chief policymaker.

Analysis Of Differences In Civilization Of Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt

Civilization is not something that happens overnight. Instead, it takes years or hundreds of decades, failing after failing, before finally becoming a reality. Collins English Dictionary defines civilization as “The condition of being civilized” (Collins). Another crucial aspect is that civilization has a foundation of religion. Without civilization, certain organizations wouldn’t thrive and others would stagnate. This allows communities to flourish and be at their highest. Although Mesopotamia was founded before Egypt, both were working towards their forms of civilization. Mesopotamia was built on the same foundations as ancient Egypt. Mesopotamia had two rivers at its center, which was crucial for its success. The Euphrates river and the Tigris rivers were both important in the development of civilization. Mesopotamia was located between them. Cities first appeared in 4000 B.C. It wasn’t until 3000 B.C that cities were organized. The harvest enabled many to live in Mesopotamia. Markets were created to attract money and are the foundation of civilization. It wasn’t until around 6000 B.C. It was not until 6000 B.C. When irrigations were first effective. Great cities were created by Uruk, which dates back to 3200 B.C. (“Mesopotamia 2017,”) and was one the largest cities. These cities were transformed into city-states. They combined small towns with cities, and kept the land close to farms. These cities were more religious and required public works, such as roads and irrigation. Mesopotamia used brick for its building materials, but it crumbled due to its fragility and inability to hold together. They ,”..oversaw all the labor required to maintain aqueducts and irrigation canals as well as water resources. They assisted merchants and traders when necessary, seeing to a caravan’s protection”(“Mesopotamia Government, 2018”). With time, the community developed a sophisticated writing style which allowed for better economics and politics. Bronze was also invented by the people to be used as armor, shields and plates, as well as knives. Slave owners were often held captive or owed money. They were then freed after a few years. Each city had its own patron god and goddess. The majority of the information we have about them comes from clay tablets that detail Mesomoptian religious beliefs. Gilgamesh (a demi-god who ruled in Uruk) was one of their beliefs. Stories about his incredible abilities were also shared. They did not believe there was an afterlife. However, they buried their dead in accessories. Mesopotamia did have a ruler, but they lost control of the country and became ungovernable. Mesopotamia was eventually destroyed by this. Ancient Egypt was founded in 3100 B.C. Its early dynastic years were located between 20 and 30 km from the Nile River. Egypt capitalized on their geographical position, and the Nile became a major source of trade, travel, communications, and other activities. Hieroglyphics is the Egyptian way of writing. It uses both pictures and words. Three kingdoms existed in ancient Egypt. Each of them learned from the last and advanced. The old kingdom’s pharaohs had absolute rulership and were considered gods. This period saw the construction of pyramids at Giza by Egyptians. These pyramids were made from limestone and lasted longer. The middle kingdom also participated in large drainage projects to make it easier to cultivate more food. The pharaohs “..appointed their high-ranking officials and they elected members from their family” (The Governance of Ancient Egypt). With this new kingdom, influential pharaohs forged an impressive empire that reached as far as the Euphrates River. Each kingdom contributed to making Egypt stronger. The kingdoms that followed saw lower and higher Egypt united and divided several times. Ancient Egypt’s religion was vital. “There are 700 gods/deities and many were combined into new deities” (“Religion and Ancient Egypt”). Egyptians believed that there was an afterlife. The Pharaoh was buried with valuables, and would build monuments to mark his grave. Although ancient Egypt’s history was gradual, it eventually developed strong dynasties. This allowed them to rule for longer periods of time. Although both Mesopotamia & Ancient Egypt share similar structures, they grew into a civilisation for their people. However, there were many differences. The first was that both relied heavily on the river(s), which helped them to become civilized. They traded with other parts of the world and were able produce food and had fun. They were also able to create a writing system around the same time they started. Both were also helped by the introduction of slavery. Slavery was a key factor in both. Peasants came in second place behind slaves. The Nile River was predictable and reliable, while the Tigris or Euphrates weren’t. Aside from Egypt having pharaohs to oversee the government, Mesopotamia, on the other hand, was governed by kings. Mesopotamia was not a believer in the afterlife. Egypt had pharaohs and officials, while Mesopotamia had kings and priests. Egypt uses stone for building, while Mesopotamia is made from mud. This material has lasted longer than Egypt. The unification of Egypt meant that it lasted longer than Mesopotamia, which was not as well managed by other countries. Works citées

“Civilization Definition and Meaning: Collins English Dictionary.” Civilization Definition and Meaning | Collins English Dictionary, www.collinsdictionary.com/us/dictionary/english/civilization.

History.com Editors. “Mesopotamia.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 30 Nov. 2017, www.history.com/topics/ancient-middle-east/mesopotamia.

“Mesopotamian Governments.” History, 2 July 2018, www.historyonthenet.com/mesopotamian-governments.

“The Government of Ancient Egypt.” The Government Of Ancient Egypt, www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ancient-egypt-government.html.

“Religion in Ancient Egypt.” Religion In Ancient Egypt, www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ancient-egypt-religion.html.

The Role Of Education And Schools In Mesopotamia

Education is the most effective tool for changing minds and making people more aware of the possibilities of their lives. The past has shown that education is still a powerful tool for developing future prospects. Education’s first writing system played a major role in its development. Mesopotamian’s invention of the writing system was around the mid-fourth millennium B.C. This is an important stimulus for education. The simple pictographs were the first form of written communication. Mesopotamians then began to develop new forms for writing signs. Cuneiform is a term for a group of people who were able to create wedge-shaped signs from wet clay using reed tools. Sumerians are the ones who gave rise to the writing symbols that Speiser wrote about. Sumerians began to improve and create a new form of education. We will examine the critical aspects of education as well as the school. Education was founded on creating a strong environment. However, children from poor families did not learn and the teaching methods were different.

First, children from poor families could not attend school. This was because the school was only open to wealthy families. Poor children learn in their families. It is passed from the one to the other. Children are not poor but are successors to their parents. You will become a farmer if your father is a farmer. They should be allowed to teach their daughters how to cook, even if it was not permitted. The only thing you want to do is live with your family. You can escape these conditions by getting at least some education. Normal tuition fees are paid by all noble families. They also know that the children who get the position will find work. They were continuing their education in formal schools and were therefore teaching aims, as well as training. They were prepared to become priests in this case. Their children could still work for their families, regardless of what the poor did. It is stated that twelve-year-old children were receiving an education in the article titled ‘Mesopotamian School and Education’. Understanding the cuneiform marking system and how difficult it was to learn them was an important issue. In this case, the inventions of schools in 3000 BC meant that there were many factors to the education system. There are two types of schools: one is made by temples and the other is formal. Tuition fees are required for formal schools. Although many people weren’t wealthy, school was a pathway to becoming wealthy. It was practical and desirable to receive formal education in order to be able work with priests or scribes. Instructors were scribes, who learned lessons from students and retorted to them. While the boy is educated in school, the girls of rulers could learn from the lessons. The education system was crucial in children’s future lives. It helped them to understand their country, its politics, and how they relate to others. Students who had special skills in maintaining balance among different environments were successful, but only a small number of children could improve. It was ineffective to decrease the number children and divide into groups. But others didn’t have the opportunity to be aware of all. Schools were restricted by poverty, which was a huge reason to seperate children. Education systems that are based on such limitations do not have a bright future. The teaching method also created many problems during the study period. The teacher wanted children to be hardworking, so they had to do their best during studying. Children who spoke without permission, were loud and insurable were punished by the teacher. The instructors believed that this was a better method to attract students and make them study easier. Despite these harsh punishments, the children continued to go to school. You could be a priest if you can read and write. Students should attend school if they are 7 or 8 years old. They taught a wide range of subjects that were educative, not just literacy. Students could not learn from scribes if they were poor or wealthy. Cuneiform was harder to learn, as I have mentioned. Students learned how to apply clay tablets continuously using different methods. These procedures can sometimes lead to errors. It was corrected by the teacher and repeated it to him. This is the best way to learn. At seven years old, it was hard enough to comprehend cuneiform. That is a point I disagree with. Another point was the limitation of permission. This was not fair towards students. First schools allowed students to gain knowledge but did not have any restrictions on their speech or dress. The reality is that forcing someone to do something they don’t like or giving them the opportunity to choose their own actions is an unnatural condition. Attraction is all about understanding that teaching should be easy, with no punishment and the ability to communicate clearly to students. Instructors should not be too strict about the clothes, but on the lessons. This is a terrible way to learn. Students could even be whipped if they don’t perform their jobs to the highest standards. The instructor could have punished the student for failing to complete tasks. People who are reprimanded by others will have no desire to help them. This is a significant point, and the method of learning may not be what you are looking for. The result was that Mesopotamia’s training system became less effective. The approach of teachers towards students was not cooperative

Education was important in Mesopotamian. In addition, the new writing system was a significant innovation that aimed to increase the educational system. The creation and operation of the schools provided children with the opportunity to transform their futures. This was a tremendous step forward in Mesopotamians’ education. There were several issues with Mesopotamia’s education system. One was the unsatisfactory teaching methods that made it difficult for students to learn. Although a few Mesopotamians were not studied due to the crab of scribes it didn’t matter as each intellectual was vital for their country. These data suggest that education is essential for the development and expansion of the economy. Schools are vital in Mesopotamia and in other countries. The increased economy results in more resources for the development of each country. Our civilization’s future depends on scientific thinking spreading and being more refined.

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