John Adams was born October 19th 1735 in Braintree Massachusetts. His family, like many New Englanders, were farmers. John’s family had owned the home he grew-up in for many generations. The Adams home had two levels. The upstairs was composed of two bedrooms, while downstairs consisted of a large kitchen and a family area with a fireplace. Johns dad, Johns, was a deacon in the local church Johns grew up in. Johns father also worked as an artisan shoemaker to support his family. John’s father had been married in his 40s by the time he was born. John was one of the oldest three children. He loved spending time with his siblings and helping with farm chores. John was also an avid hunter and fisherman like the farm boys of his generation. However, John was a solid student and was taught science, philosophy, Latin, writing and Latin. John loved to hunt squirrels and rabbits in the New England woods.
John’s father was strict about John’s education. John loved farming and enjoyed his dad’s discipline. His father hoped that John would be able to go on to a higher-paying profession like a priest. Johns father worked hard at the farm to show John what it was like being a farmer. John’s father would often ask John his opinion after a hard day’s work on the farm. John would then reply with a tired tone that “I like doing it well father!” His father also got John his former pastor, Rev. John was tutored by Joseph Marsh. John responded quickly to the change despite his strict new teacher. John had been under Rev. Marsh for 18 months. John Marsh was at 15 years of age and was ready to apply at Harvard University. It was not unusual for adolescents boys to be freshman in a university at that time. Harvard University was regarded as a college of regiments during a time when many people did not go to college. John was a lucky young man to have been admitted to Harvard. Harvard was not a popular university at the time, as many boys who went to Harvard were from more aristocratic families. John’s family was also a Harvard alumni. It was almost nepotism for their sons be accepted into Harvard. John found Harvard a fun place to live, despite being a student from a lower socioeconomic background than the rest of his classmates. His Harvard experience was full of many challenges and opportunities that helped him grow. John Adams was entering his senior year of Harvard in 1755. He had yet to choose a career. John Adams was raised by his dad to be a minister, but he didn’t think that was possible. John also recognized his inability to handle the pressures of preaching from a pulpit. John also appreciated his independence, which he couldn’t have as a clergyman. As a result, many New England students were attracted to the fields of law and medicine by universities like Harvard. However, clergymen were still considered highly respected. John contemplated becoming a lawyer as he would not have to be so concerned about pleasing everyone. John’s father, a deacon, often saw lawyers as people who are more concerned with their clients than they are themselves.
John was interested in a career in law, but he sometimes felt confused about why he chose this profession. John was passionate about being well-known and recognized, some traits that were consistent with his religious background. John received a job as a teacher of Latin at the Worcester grammar, west of Boston, after he graduated from Harvard. John saw this job as a temporary assignment until he realized if he really wanted to be a lawyer or follow in his father’s footsteps and become a priest. John was unhappy with his life. Worcester was not as big as Boston. It also didn’t offer as many opportunities for socializing as Harvard. However, John did enjoy the Harvard campus’s social activities. John became a strict, short-tempered schoolmaster, much like his childhood teachers. He had to deal with students who couldn’t speak the alphabet and correct their pronunciations. John began to see his students as lazy, boring, and ignorant. John was frequently invited to the homes of Worcester’s most prominent residents to have tea or dinner and to discuss the latest events in the region. John was frequently invited to Worcester’s most important residents to have tea or dinner, and to discuss the latest events in the Boston area.
John didn’t want to become a priest, as he thought the medical field would be a lot more work than it was worth and result in little recognition. John also had doubts about Braintree’s perception of the legal profession. He believed that lawyers were people who create more problems than solve them, and make themselves rich at the expense others’ poverty. John would be offered more opportunities as a lawyer. John was unable to please his father, because many people in his hometown saw lawyers in a negative light. John was about starting his second year in Worcester grammar school headmaster when he realized he could no more delay his decision not to study law. John wanted to move on and get out of his predicament. John even wondered how he could be successful in his legal studies. John struggled with these questions to the end. John then contacted James Putnam (the head lawyer in Worcester) to set up an apprenticeship. John didn’t intend to become a pastor, but he did want to practice law. James Putnam offered John the opportunity to study under him. John moved into James Putnam’s house, paying James Putnam the money he had saved at school for lodging and lessons.
It was not common for the first settlers to New England to have had lawyers before they arrived. But, once the British Commonwealth was viewed positively and loved by them, trust began to decline. To resolve any disputes between colonies, the legal profession was born. John would often argue that American lawyers were meant to defend the rights of a nation. John’s New England experiences were the catalyst for his faith and his choice of profession. John was drawn to the drama that unfolded in a courtroom during his time studying under James Putnam. John Adams, who had just completed his studies at James Putnam, was admitted to Massachusetts colony’s bar. In Braintree, he set up a small law office where he would deal with deeds, property taxes, wills and other matters. John often took cases concerning sexual assaults and libel. John also led protests against pubs when patrons got into brawls outside or inside the pubs. John eventually succeeded in obtaining an ordinance restricting the licensing of these bars. John became enamored of James Otis, another local lawyer, who participated in a case in which merchants from Boston rebelled against the fact they were having their ships broken into and had cargo stolen.
British customs officials had authorized actions through the writs to assist the British Crown. John was impressed by Otis’s speech at the trial, even though it only dealt with protecting the smugglers. John was left with a positive impression of the limits that British authority in colonies was supposed be. The British parliament introduced a new bill in 1767 that would impose duties upon products imported into the American colonies. The new legislation stated that these taxes were external and not internal because of how they were connected to foreign trading. John would strongly oppose any taxation without consent or representation. As the British parliament was discussing the new legislation on the matter, the British sent more troops to the colonies to strengthen any existing laws and to stop citizens who were opposed to it. After one American boy was killed by gunfire, many colonists wanted to challenge the British troops. They threatened to use their firearms to stop them. Uncontrollable mobs of people shouted “KILL THEM” and gun fire erupted. Crispus Attucks a mulatto, who had fought alongside the Caucasian colonists. Crispus Attucks was the first African American who fought for freedom.
Captain Thomas Preston, the commanding commander who ordered those shots to be fired, was arrested. John Adams was appointed to represent Captain Preston at the Boston Massacre trial. John accepted because he believed all people had the right of fair trial. John believed that a lawyer must be responsible for his country as well as the most powerful and infallible committees he is assigned to. Bostonians didn’t get it. It was hard to believe John would offer to be a representative for a man as shrewd as Captain Preston. Josiah Quincy, John’s attorney, and Josiah Quincy, another attorney for Captain Preston were both present witnesses who testified that Captain Preston had been forced to fire his muskets at civilians. John used dramatic tactics involving racial profile to remind the jury that some of the people who died were mulattos as well as Negroes and Negroes. John also spoke out strongly about self-defense. On June 6th 1767, a local election took place in Boston to elect a head court position. When running for office, candidates were required to refrain from doing anything for themselves. John Adams was elected to the court post with 418-536 votes.
The fine people of Boston were coming to terms with John Adams’s role on the court system. He didn’t like to play favorites with anyone. John decided to stay out of the public eye and settled for a patriotic profession that mixed sentimentality with disregarding any active shares he was naturally encouraged to take. John had put in a lot of effort to practice his occupation. John understood that no object was better than him and that he had always taken pride in the achievements of others. John was a practicing lawyer for some time now and was the Massachusetts state bar’s most successful man. John believed that admission to a public career like his would be a loss of his work and that it would expose him to anxiety and complications about his personal safety, family, or end up in poverty. Johns later described the emotions he felt upon accepting the office as very depressing. John sat down with a sense of deep presentiment and self-sacrifice. John accepted to pursue a public profession that would reward him for his intellectual disability and courage. John’s first foray into public life was what gripped him. Thankfully, it didn’t last long. John started feeling chest pains after his election to his new job.
John was able to recover from the injury, but it wasn’t serious. He had to leave his job due to this health problem. John was sitting in his office chair, immobile for a while. Then, he staggered down the hallway toward his wife, his complexion pale. He told her that he couldn’t bear to stay in the city any longer, and she agreed. John made the decision to return to Braintree, Massachusetts in 1771. John wished that he had the ability to do more and hoped God would grant him that power again. John was not able to fulfill his desires, his efforts were futile, and he felt that he was causing havoc for himself. John suffered from a debilitating health event that left him feeling sad and would occasionally feel nostalgic for the joy that his position had given him. It turned out that his faith in God was a good thing. John’s health was re-established by 1772 and he concluded that he was still needed to serve the Massachusetts colony. John purchased a home near Boston’s city courthouse, and returned to Boston. John promised to stay out of public affairs in the colony and town, because John believed that his own welfare, family, and life were too important. Therefore, he was determined to sacrifice for them. John believed he did his country a favor and that his recovery from anxiety is a blessing.
The British monarchy was imposing tyranny on the colonies in 1774. John had been surrounded by people since his return from Boston. John was called back to public life once more, as he couldn’t resist the unpleasant subjects. John continued his profession, and he took care of his personal affairs. He was an acute and frugal person who was raised in New England’s businesslike setting. John was also supported by his wife and children. John also had to participate in the political and potentially dangerous matters that were going on in the colonies. John was 38 and still young. He was well versed in public and personal laws. John’s temperament combined joy with boldness with prudence. John was also trusted as a trustworthy, active, and full of energy. All 13 colonies were now the same population as London England by this year. Paris was home to more than one million people, London had about a million and Boston, around 15,000 residents. As the colonies would be governed by one another, they were up in arms. Connecticut was considered democratic and New York, however, was considered to have more aristocratic social structure.
Merchants, clergy, lawyers and physicians made up the upper class of the colonial people. These different groups were often in conflict. The colonial assemblies owned the majority of land and were responsible for directing commerce. Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania were the middle class colonies. The middle classes consisted of shops keepers, carpenters. However, representatives from all these colonies were sent to Philadelphia on September 5th 1774. John Adams was among them. Despite their different occupations and social backgrounds, they all agreed that colonies were tired of being ruled by the British monarchy. Even though the British monarchy allowed the colonies the right to make their own laws, the King had to appoint them as judges. The only control that the colonists could have over these judges would be to manage their income.
As the congressional meeting got underway, all these men began to debate between themselves, wearing their knee-breeched pant, powdered blonde wigs with ponytails, buckled shoes, and black triangle head hats. This congressional meeting was held in the East wing. The door opened and the colonial representatives entered the room. The room was brightly lit and exuberant by the early morning sunlight, which the representatives appreciated. The walls were painted in a finely polished white. There was also a floor of dark stained wooden boards. Finally, there is a fireplace with white panels. The representatives took their places in a variety of black-painted armchairs made from hickorywood. John sat next to Thomas Cushing. John was absent from anything as important since the Boston massacre trials. John was not well enough to be summoned after a bout with illness. John remembered the promise he made to himself to be ethical even if it meant for others more than him. He also remembered how many people in his town didn’t like lawyers. John was used to participating in local meetings since his time as a school-master.
It was argued out loudly whether it was better to oppose the British Monarchy than to just humbly follow their lead. Also, each colony had its own problems, like being unable to appoint judges to their courts. The South Carolina representatives mentioned that laws passed in response to the Massachusetts Bay had adversely affected all of North America. John stood up to ask the delegates how they would vote. Will it be one vote per colony or a plurality? First debate went to those who wanted to cut ties with Britain’s Monarchy. The first debate of congress didn’t take place in order to seek independence from Britain. Congress had not received one vote from Joseph Galloway the leader, however. Galloway came up with a radical plan. A massive council for colonies would be formed. Members would come from each colony. All laws would have to be approved or renewed by either the American grand Council or the British Parliament. Galloway’s idea seemed unlikely as congress would not be able stop the shifting power in colonies. But the Continental Congress saw the potential in Galloway and set up the Continental Association. The colonists could stop any import, export, or consumption of goods that had been agreed to by congress with the help of this new organization.
These extraordinary political changes didn’t happen because colonists were against British imperial reform. The British attempted to reorganize the empire in a complex environment. Some cases that were politically motivated had more to do with the escalating conflict between the colonies, the British monarchy and other countries. John awoke on Friday, 28 October, and made his way towards the bedroom in the inn. He opened the bedroom’s shutters and gazed out over the cobbled streets, seeing that it was raining and thundering as he did so. John, still wearing his nightshirt, was looking out at the windows and deciding to return home. John got up, changed into his clothes and looked at the dimly lit room. John went downstairs for breakfast, then waited for his coach. He arrived at 8 AM. John’s 13-day journey home seemed to be a constant. After reaching Elizabeth Town Point, John’s coach and horses were transferred onto ferryboats that took them 6 miles to Staten Isle. John turned 39 on the day.
John was shocked to learn that New Yorkers were feeling dissatisfied with the continental congress events upon his arrival. John met with other Massachusetts congress participants, and they made their way together to New Haven. There was much celebration.
New Haven also sent messengers 20 miles ahead to alert them of congress members’ arrival. The document was already printed and broadcast, so the Tories were kept busy. John was familiar with pamphlets that were being promoted on New Haven’s streets. John and the other Massachusetts representatives were delighted by the warm welcome. John had never visited Massachusetts before the summoning down to Philadelphia. John was finally able to return home to Abigail, his wife and their three children, after several months. The word about John’s involvement in the Philadelphia congress meeting spread fast. Congress could not do much at this point except to supply proclamations. Massachusetts would need its own resources to avoid importing British products if it felt the need to resist British attempts to discipline it.