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Category: History Essays Samples Page 2 of 5

The Rebirth Of Science And Medicine In Hellenistic Greece And Rome

Greece went through a period where it was enlightened in terms of science and art from the 300s BCE until the beginnings of the 1st century. Greece made discoveries during this time of economic and social revival that changed the world. Ptolemy made great advances in mathematics, creating the earliest trigonometric functions table known and creating the standard geometry book. Science, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics were the most important advances. Though some ideas didn’t become fully established until the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution, in the 16th Century, they opened the door to a world that was previously unknown. It is not widely known that Hellenistic medical and scientific ideas are still used today. Even simple textbooks like geometry teach the same concepts today as they did centuries ago. Even simple things like a geometry book are still used today to teach people the same things they did hundreds of years ago.

Eratosthenes’ calculations of the earth’s circumference, and his first map, were among the most important discoveries of Hellenistic Science. The geographer used sundials placed around 100 meters apart to calculate that the earth’s circumference was close to 25,000 kilometers, or 200 miles less than the modern calculation. Martianus, for example, made other claims regarding the Earth. Eratosthenes was also involved in the first map. This map was more accurate than any other map at the time. It included latitudes and longitudes. The map he created gave his time a better understanding of the Earth and its geography. Posidonius’ calculations of the circumference of earth and modern geography were based on these two discoveries. Christopher Columbus and other explorers would never have considered venturing west in search of a route from the Atlantic Ocean to India if not for Eratosthenes’ calculations. Eratosthenes may have prevented the discovery of the “New World”, and hundreds of explorers would have never had the chance to find land in the west.

Archimedes was another Hellenistic scientist who changed the world. Archimedes invented the compound pulley and formulated the law of floating body, which he called the Archimedes Principle. Archimedes created the compound pulling system, a tubular water pump that rotates to draw water upwards. The compound pulley was used by farmers for thousands of years to move water uphill. One of his other inventions is the Archimedes Principle. He claimed that an object submerged completely or partially in liquid would lose the same weight as the liquid it is displaced from. The formula was revolutionary in the field of shipbuilding as it allowed for better stabilization of floating vessels. Archimedes’ discoveries had a direct effect on his world. Compound screws allowed farmers to transport more water higher than before. Archimedes’ principle allowed for increased ship stability as well as a way to weigh objects of irregular shape by measuring the displacement of water. Even how future submarines and ships will sink is described by the principle. Archimedes’ impact on science is still felt today, even though he did not know it at the time.

Herophilus was the first Hellenistic scientist to dissect a human body and to investigate the functions of brain parts and arteries. He was the first to begin dissecting human bodies after moving to Alexandria. Erasistratus his younger co-worker, also a scientist, helped him. Herophilus investigated the anatomy and inner workings in his dissections. Herophilus illustrated the brain in detail and also the arteries. In the brain’s case, he could distinguish the different parts of it and their functions. He distinguished between motor and sensory neurons in a discrete manner, showing his deep understanding of the nervous systems. Herophilus found that arteries only contain blood, and not air or blood and oxygen as Aristotle thought. Herophilus also discovered the function of arteries, which is to carry blood from heart to body. New theories about how the human body functions were created as a result of further examination. Herophilus disproved the four humors theory, on which the Church had been relying for centuries. His brain diagrams revealed new neuronal building blocks and new hypotheses. The discovery that arteries had a function laid the basis for William Harvey and other doctors of the 1500s. Although his achievements were little known at the time, they made a significant contribution to our understanding of human anatomy.

Erasistratus continued Herophilus’s rejection of the four humors. Erasistratus is a contemporary to Herophilus. In Alexandria, he investigated Herophilus’ works further and discovered his own discoveries. Erasistratus studied physiology, primarily the structure and function of parts of living organisms. Erasistratus’ studies allowed him to learn a lot about the valves in the heart, and how they function. Erasistratus used his physiological studies to explain digestion and respiration processes, as well as those of the vascular system, to differentiate between veins and arteries (Lindberg 121). Erasistratus was also of the opinion that arteries contain pneuma. He believed this stimulated tiny particles in the human bodies, transporting them throughout the body. The explanations of the time were very impressive. Some parts are still used today. Erasistratus opposed humoral theories of disease in a similar way to Herophilus. But he was more adamant. He opposed the use of bloodletting to cure disease (bleeding the four humors), a practice that had been used for centuries (Koletsis). In response, he received criticism from many. The extent of the claims was not understood at the time. But they did change the face and nature of anatomy, so much that scientists were unable to return to the humoral theories. These discoveries, together with Herophilus’, formed the basis for physiology, anatomy, and morphology. Galen used his careful dissections to further investigate the human body almost four centuries after Herophilus.

Hipparchus was a remarkable man who dedicated himself to mathematics and the stars. He compiled a catalogue of fixed stars in the sky, as well as the Precession of the Equinoxes. Hipparchus, a man of great intellect and dedication to mathematics and the heavens, compiled a catalog of fixed stars and created the Precession of the Equinoxes. Hipparchus compiled a list of over 850 fixed, non-moving stars. One example is the north star Polaris. In 129 BCE this was a significant achievement. But he also created the first star chart. He helped sailors to navigate by providing a way of determining the direction. Hipparchus developed the Precessions Equinoxes as a way to explain the rotation of our sky. He noted that his measurements of stars had been altered, indicating the earth’s movement, and not that of the stars. Hipparchus used this discovery to describe the movement of the Earth in new ways. He went on to calculate the time that constellations were to appear in certain locations. He also calculated the time of the solstices, equinoxes and other events (Lindberg 1998). These discoveries led other astronomers to discover other phenomena. Ptolemy made use of Hipparchus’ catalogues of stars and other discoveries to suggest an astronomy that revolved around circles. He also accurately predicted planetary positions. Unlike other scientists who were celebrated at the time, Hipparchus’ work wasn’t noticed by greek society until after the Scientific Revolution. Astronomers now recognize his contribution to the world and have been able to understand it.

Aristarchus, a Samos man, is also important, but not as much so as Hipparchus. Aristarchus was known as the Hellenistic Copernicus for his heliocentrism work and calculations about the size of universe. His suggestion of a system heliocentric in which the sun is fixed and the earth revolves around it was criticized (Lindberg, 95). Even though he felt he had the right theory, it was rejected by his peers because of its conflict with Aristotle’s theories, Jewish ideas and Christian beliefs. It took 1800 years before a scientist could prove the heliocentrism. Aristarchus had the original idea, even though Copernicus has been credited with the proof. Aristotle was also the first to grasp the true size of the Universe (Koletsis). In the past, people didn’t look beyond the sky, since they believed that beyond the Solar System was a land of angels and gods. Aristarchus questioned this belief when he observed that the stars were immobile. He then expanded the size the universe to a much greater extent than was previously accepted. The 16th-century Scientific Revolution proved this, too. Aristarchus may not have proved his own hypotheses, but both set the stage for modern space exploration. He was the person who first changed the perception of people about the relative size and position of earth and sun. It is impossible to ignore his work, which is a testament to his incredible mathematical and science abilities as well as his intelligence to create ideas that were superior to accepted ones.

The modern world is shaped by the contributions of each scientist in this document. Erasistratus and the heliocentrism idea are at the forefront of all astronomy research and circulatory studies. Scientists such as Archimedes or Eratosthenes made discoveries, while physicians Herophilus or Erasistratus conducted research. Astronomers Hipparchus or Aristarchus also observed the sky. These discoveries led to many discoveries that we still use today. Hellenistic medical and scientific discoveries are on par with the Scientific Revolution from the English Renaissance. The ideas that were developed over the next 2 000 years led to a new phase of scientific thought, which forever changed the face of the earth. Who knows when we would have understood the human body or the sun as the center of our universe if it wasn’t for the scientists. These concepts are so important that we wouldn’t even dream of going beyond the stars. They deserve to be appreciated more.

Analyzing Romanticism In Pushkin’s “The Shot”

The Shot by Pushkin has a theme which is immediately evident: “the nobleman who romanticizes life”. The Romantic Era was the time when Pushkin wrote. This theme is not only important because it was popular during that period, but also because of its importance for other reasons. In many ways, this “romanticization”, which is common in Pushkin’s work, guides the whole experience. This theme appears in a descriptive, emotionally charged narrative, as it does so often. The Shot, and Pushkin, are both romantic works.

Pushkin has his protagonist be an outsider right from the beginning. He lives in an outpost with Russians, but his name “Silvio” is not Russian. He has a mysterious quality and is older. He has paradoxical personality traits; he’s friendly and welcomes everyone into his home, but he’s also aloof. The other men are both frightened and respected by his aloofness. Pushkin claimed that “nobody was aware of his financial situation or circumstances, and no-one dared to ask him about it” (23). Silvio lives a life apart from the rest of us, and all the men want to know what makes him appear so powerful. Pushkin’s description of Silvio as aloof, with walls “riddled with bulletholes and like honeycombs in appearance”, makes the reader curious. The idea of an outsider who is noble and heroic is romantic.

From the beginning, it is clear that Silvio is a hero. Even the name of Silvio sounds heroic. Pushkin states that “nobody was aware of the reasons behind his decision to resign from his position and settle in this wretched, little town,” (22), which makes it clear that Silvio had once been a very important man. Silvio rejects wealth, as well. In the “wretched, mudwalled cottage” where he lives, his “rich gun collection was the sole luxury”. People who reject their material wealth have been viewed as heroes since before the Romantic Period.

The Romantic Era literature was heavily influenced by the individuality of Romantic Era authors. It reflected their environment. Many Romantic Era authors, like Pushkin, were oppressed by their governments and expressed themselves through their writing. The writers of the Romantic Era would create stories that would brighten a bleak world by imagining an outsider like themselves who was able to overcome stifling formality and oppression in order live passionately. This novel’s setting is similar to Pushkin, who struggled to live passionately in a military outpost. They see Silvio as a hero because he is an individualist in a conformist environment.

Pushkin slowly reveals more details to the readers about Silvio. The reader learns about a duel Silvio entered that ended unusually. Pushkin romanticizes the entire duel. Silvio shoots first, but his opponent refuses (27). The duel, where the life of one’s opponent is on the table, is not a time for heroics. Or maybe, as in a Russian Romanticist Novel, it is. Pushkin then focuses on the psychology of the man about to shoot the other man, giving him a glimpse into his thoughts. Silvio told the narrator that he was standing in the range of his pistol and spit out stones from his cap. I was enraged by his indifference. What was the point in taking his life if he didn’t care about it? Pushkin represents the duel, which is still considered barbaric today, as a show of pride that values sentiment and pride above victory.

In the end, it is revealed that Silvio was eager to complete the duel as soon as his opponent became more concerned about his own safety. Silvio waited 5 years for his rival to get married and practiced every day. Silvio forces his opponent to fire at him and ends the duel by saying, “I’m satisfied.” The alarm and confusion you have shown me is enough. You will never forget me. “I pledge you to the conscience of your mind” (32). Silvio did not wait to kill this man, but rather to keep him forever in his memory. Silvio fired, leaving a bullet-hole over the one made by his opponent to indicate that it was his life. It is emotionally moving to know that Silvio spent five years training to become an expert shot, only to let his adversary keep his life.

Works Cited

The citation for both the original and paraphrased versions would be the same as you would use the same source for both.

Gibian, George. The Portable Nineteenth-century Russian Reader. New York, NY, U.S.A.: Penguin, 1993. 22-33. Print.

The Use Of Word Play And Rhetorical Devices In The Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave

Most masters want their slaves to remain ignorant. Many writers have used intellectual wordplays and language to connect with readers in order to create emotional connections. Frederick Douglass was one of many writers who used rhetorical devices to create an emotional bond between the writer and the reader.

Douglass used a variety of methods to influence the audience. As stated in the statement, “He’d whip her until she screamed, then whip her again to quiet her down; and only after he had become exhausted, would he give up swinging his bloodstained cowskin”. Readers were immediately moved by the crazed slave owner who treated slaves with such poor manners. Douglass’s use of language helped to paint a picture for readers. The changes in slavery really showed the empathy that was felt because of the horrific things the slaves experienced. This autobiography was a masterpiece of imagery.

Additionally, irony and comedy were used in order to give the reader a glimpse into how slaves saw light even when it was dark. The quote was “I consider my departure from the plantation of Colonel Lloyd as one of most interesting events in my life”. The quote implies that Douglass was never free during his slavery years, but he preferred some slaveholders over others due to their violence and diatribes against slaves. This irony was used to lighten the mood and make the readers feel better. Douglass’s humor made them feel relieved. Irony is a great way to make readers feel better when reading about the horrors that Douglass and other slaves have experienced.

Douglass used tone to show his attitude to slaveholders as well as other people that he encountered in the autobiography. “I loathed the worst and most wicked men” was another statement. This quote has a very pessimistic tone. Douglass, however, hated the men he was describing. Douglass still used very careful words to describe them without cursing them. It was the tone that made readers realize how Douglass felt at different times.

Repetition was also used as a rhetorical tool to influence the audience. As stated, “Where slave-whips ceaselessly swing, Where noisy insects sting, Where fever-demons strew” are all examples. This part of the poetry makes use of repetition to make the words spoken more powerful. The scene described in the last quote is gloomy and unappealing to read. But the rhetorical tool used in this part of poem triggered the audience, as it was unique compared to all the other literature. This quote used a clever wordplay to describe the places where the horrifying horrors took place.

Douglass continues by using a wide variety of language to express how he finally felt free. Douglass, who was born as a slave, had to flee the slaveholder and the place where he lived to be able to live his dream life. For instance, “I escaped from a worse fate than lions’ teeth”. The metaphor Douglass used to describe his slavery was painful and traumatic. It was the greatest feeling to finally be free. The reader was shown how much worse slavery is in comparison with a lions jaw. This influenced people’s view of slavery. It became a major issue and many people started to speak up about it.

In all situations, Douglass’ use of rhetorical tools and wordplay affected the audience on many levels. Douglass used these tools to get the true emotions of his readers. Douglass wanted them to see what slavery was like and to be able to relate to it. Douglass hoped that people would realize the need to change the world. This autobiography was written by Douglass to show how the world has changed. Most people are unable to relate to it, but it still continues to make a difference in people’s daily lives.

Innovative Reform Movements During The Second Great Awakening

DBQ Reforms in the Second Great Awakening

Americans wanted their citizens to be more upright, God-fearing, literate, and upright. In the early years of the Republic, Americans began to devote more and more energy to religious reforms and revivals. The realities of democracy disappointed some Americans. Reformers called for more public education and the rights of women. Societies against alcohol and slavery were formed. Religious reforms changed the role of religion in American society and encouraged believers to improve the world. The Second Great Awakening ignited innovative reforms that pushed democratic ideals in both the social and political realms.

Horace Mann’s education reform was a bid to provide public education to all children to ensure they had the same opportunity to learn and succeed. Horace Mann (1796-1859), a leading advocate for the tax-supported public school, led the movement to create a common (public) education. Horace made an effort in 1846 to ensure that every child could receive an education without charge. The “duty of every government” was to make sure that all children could receive an education (doc 3). The majority of white middle-class boys were able attend school during the 19thcentury. Many girls were not considered bright enough to attend school and were instead used as slaves on plantations. Some poor boys went to school. Some poor boys attended school. Horace’s efforts and those of other reformers led to free public education for all children, paid for through state taxes. Dorothea Dix was the leader of the Rehabilitation Reform movement, which fought against the poor treatment and care provided to mentally handicapped asylum inmates and improved rehabilitation programs for inmates in federal prisons. The reason for this is that people were restrained by “strait-waistcoat…fastened to the upper part of the bedstead with chains…and their feet with iron leg locks or chains” in mental hospitals (doc 5). These inhumane, unconstitutional conditions were imposed on the mentally sick. Dix supporters fought to improve the treatment for mentally disabled patients. Because of this movement, many new asylums and improvements were built in different parts of the country. In addition to prisons, rehabilitation programs helped convicts reintegrate into society.

Abolitionists helped the suffrage cause because slavery united women for a different cause. Despite the fact that they were both fighting for the abolitionist cause, they experienced oppression by men. The women began to fight their own democratic ideas, leading to prominent suffragists including Susan B. Anthony. The suffrage campaign suffered a second setback in 1840 when the World Anti-Slavery Convention, which was not open to women abolitionists, took place. Seneca Falls Convention was a women’s rights convention that took place in Seneca Falls in 1848. Its goal was to increase awareness of women’s issues. Elizabeth Cady Stanton wrote the Declaration of Sentiments at this convention, calling for women to have democratic rights like Americans. This declaration was addressed to the United States Federal Government, stating “We hold this truth as self-evident. All men and women are equal.” It was because the government had a responsibility to protect the rights of people, and not watch women being denied their natural rights. Women of this period were denied their natural rights due to the belief that “women can’t work as hard” as men. The 19th century saw girl women treated differently to men. Men were expected by society to be public, whether they worked in factories, attended meetings or clubs, or went out with their friends. Women, on the other hand, were expected mostly to stay home, do all of the cleaning, cooking and childcare. While women were expected to stay at home, they would be responsible for the cooking, cleaning and child rearing.

In large part due to these pre-19th-century expectations, women did not have the same access to education as their male counterparts. Women’s education was viewed by many as a form of subversion and perversion. Women were completely excluded from political life as they could not vote. Women’s Rights Movement was successful in the end, although it didn’t happen until 1920 with the passage of the 19th Amendment. The 19th Amendment prohibits the denial of voting rights to any United States citizen based on gender. The 19th amendment was ratified 18 August 1920. Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others were not around to witness the ratification of the amendment that they first drafted. However, their decades-long dedication was rewarded. Women’s Rights Movement led to a shift in the perception of women as being a “second-class race”. They were now seen as being on par with males, both politically and socially. The women’s movement and the Temperance movements were closely connected in the nineteenth century. As the women gained more freedom, they fought alongside organizations like The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance. The women believed that alcohol contributed to poverty, crime, death, and other issues (doc 4). The government was eventually approached by this group as well as others to stop alcohol sales. Alcoholism is also thought to have a connection to family disintegration, since drunkenness leads to an increase in household abuse. The people who wanted this law wanted it to be a blanket prohibition of alcohol throughout society.

The Second Great Awakening was the primary reason for the powerful abolitionists movement. The abolitionists movement was one that had a lot of influential leaders, including William Garrison as editor of The Liberator, an anti-slavery newspaper. These men, and many others, fought for the unconditional and immediate emancipation from slavery of all the slaves in America and in the newly acquired territories. William Lloyd Garrison believes that slavery was inhumane. He is also a deeply religious man. Garrison, in the Declaration of the National Anti-Slavery Convention of 1833 emphasized many important points such as the treatment of African Americans like “marketable commodity” (doc 1) Slavery was treated inhumanly, as slaves were punished most often who lived and worked on plantations. Plantation owners or masters, their wives, children, or drivers were all capable of administering punishment. The slave overseers had the authority to punish and whip their slaves. The abolitionist movement and slavery’s issue remained prominent during the Civil War, even though abolition did not occur. From 1825 to 1850, many reform movements gained popularity by promoting the spread of America’s democratic ideals.

The Second Great Awakening marked a time of great change in America for its minority communities. Women, children and slaves as well as criminals had the opportunity to express their views publicly. Through social and political participation, the minorities were given democratic rights and representation. Americans started to recognize equality as an important human trait that must be pursued. The society in America began to demand equality and change for minorities, thanks to the influence of influential individuals. A reform similar to these is the child labor reforms from the 20thcentury. The National Child Labor Committee coordinated the movement against child exploitation. By 1910, most states had passed laws regulating the age at which children can legally work (between the ages of 12 and 16), as well as the maximum number of hours per day and week.

The Decline Of Human Ethics And The Rise Of Science: Nazi-eugenic Experiments And Dr. Josef Mengele

During World War II the prisoners in German concentration camp suffered many tortures. Nazi concentration camp are considered by many to be the worst example of human depravity. Rarely do we see such blatant disregards for ethics or basic human right. Adolf Hitler used the ongoing war to throw ethics out the window and experiment on prisoners even if they did not consent. He adopted the pseudoscience eugenics to prove the superiority of the Aryan race and ordered the euthanasia of mentally ill and genetically unfit people before concentration camps had been set up. The camps have been the source of many horrific stories, the majority of which are about the medical experiments conducted by camp doctors. Nazi doctors used prisoners to perform cruel, inhumane, or sadistic experiments. Contrary to what is commonly believed, some experiments were based solely on scientific fact. The purpose was to torture and kill the prisoners.

These experiments triggered a reevaluation on previous ethical codes and the invention of a whole new set of rules. As soon as the war ended, there were many calls for retribution. Nuremberg held a Doctor’s Trial to bring justice to the victims of war. Twenty-three men were tried. Of those, twenty were Nazis doctors. Twenty of the accused were charged with crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity and conspiracy. Of the 23 defendants, 7 were executed and another 7 were exonerated.

The trials led scientists and doctors to reevaluate their ethical standards. Nuremberg Code, created in August 1947. Since its creation, it has played a major role in defining ethics. It changed the rules for what could be done with human subjects. It outlined new laws governing psychological research and medical, pharmaceutical, and scientific research. The code includes ten guidelines for conducting medical and scientific tests on human beings. Guidelines include:

It is essential that the subject of the experiment gives their consent.

It should not be random or unneeded, but rather, it should yield results that are beneficial to society and cannot be obtained by any other method.

The experiment needs to be planned so that its results can justify its execution.

It is important to conduct the experiment in a way that avoids all unnecessary mental and physical suffering.

It is not acceptable to conduct an experiment if it can be predicted that there will be a death or a disabling injury. This may only apply in the case of experiments involving experimental physicians who are also their subjects.

The risk level should not exceed the value of the problem that the experiment is intended to solve.

To protect experimental subjects from injury, disability, and death, it is essential to provide them with adequate preparations.

Only persons with a scientific background should conduct the experiment. Those who are involved in or conduct the experiment should have the highest level of care and skill throughout all twenty-one stages.

The human subject is free to terminate the experiment at any stage if the state of his body or mind makes him believe that it’s impossible to continue.

The scientist must be prepared, at any time, to terminate an experiment if the evidence is sufficient to show that a continued experiment could result in harm, disability or death for the experimental subject.

The guidelines were used not only in research but also for medical ethics. Consent from patients and subject is essential. Nazi experiments made medical ethics and scientific integrity a major issue in the twenty-first century’s growing scientific community. In the early days of human experimentation there were no laws or rules, but it was important to treat humans with respect. The Nuremberg Code was not adopted by any country or institution, despite its importance and seriousness.

Ethics laws today reflect the past. Hypothermia And Resuscitation Of Hypothermia remains a popular and useful experiment. The Nazi high command conducted the experiments on men, simulating the conditions of the Eastern front. The cold caused thousands of German soldiers to die from hypothermia. Dr. Sigmund Rasch conducted the experiments at Birkenau Dachau Auschwitz. The freezing experiments consisted of two parts. They were designed to find out how long the body temperature takes to reach death, as well as how to safely restore them to life after a low body temp without harming them. They used two methods to freeze their victim. Either the person was placed in a tub of ice-water or they were left naked outside in temperatures below zero. It was found that the ice-water bath is the fastest way to lower the body’s temperature. For the experiment, they used young healthy Russians or Jews who were usually naked. They prepared them by inserting an insulated thermometer into their rectum. The probe was secured in place using a metal band that could expand and be adjusted so it opened inside the rectum. The victims then went into the vat and began to freeze. The experiment showed that victims lose consciousness and eventually die when their temperature reaches 25 C. Auschwitz’s harsh winters provided an ideal opportunity to test theories.

Joseph Mengele led many horrific experiments at Auschwitz, including those based in eugenics. Many of the Nazi’s bizarre theories about “Aryanness” were used to guide these experiments. Even the question of whether or not there are distinct races of humans is controversial. Modern scientists do not believe that the Aryan people exist. The Nazis decided, once they had Germany under their control in 1933 to make German society look the way they imagined it. The Sterilization Law of July 14, 1933 (also called the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring), was a big step toward that goal. The law allowed people with specific illnesses to be sterilized either consentingly or involuntarily, so as to stop the spread of hereditary disorders. Mengele was forced to change his experiments after he failed to find out if Aryans were better than other races.

After Dr. Mengele’s inconclusive experiments, he started his own twin project. He would collect twins from docks, trains, etc. and separate them from their mothers, taking them to a different place than where their parents were. He would send the parents off to a different concentration camp or kill them. He conducted many experiments to see if fraternal and identical twins could be connected. In Berlin, he took multiple blood samples for analysis and infected Jewish as well Gypsy fraternal and idential twins. Dr. Nyiszli said they worked also with tuberculous doubles. Professor Von Verschuer destroyed Dr. Mengele’s letters and reports to cover up the unethical and brutal treatment of prisoners.

We rely on eyewitness testimony as no original documentation has survived. They did not find a solution to their problem. Mengele’s experiments were painful, but he was trying to find out about photogenic eyes pigmentation and the hereditary nature of eye colors. Nazis wanted to know if the color and structure of the eye could be used as a way to determine a test subject’s “race”. Even though it seems impossible, Mengele’s theories continue to be researched and developed. His focus on twins manifested itself through studies concerning fertility drugs. Some women have given birth to quadruplets, octuplets and even octuplets. The genetic editing that he did in his past research has now allowed scientists to fix DNA defects of parents. Thanks to the advances in technology, scientists can now use robots to test on animals and humans instead of using human or animal testing.

Remember two things when you reflect on the research done by Joseph Mengele. Mengele regularly submitted reports to Nazi departments of medicine, but kept much of his research to himself. The developments remained unknown. The Nazis also provided almost no funding for the project Mengele was responsible for. The Nazis spent nearly all their development funds on military research.

Hypothermia was the key to enabling us to launch people into orbit. The entire purpose of this experiment was to see how well the human organism could deal with extreme cold. They wrote a survival guide for cold weather that is still used, almost in its original form, by NATO troops. It was deemed the most useful because it showed the Nazis the effects of cold on their soldiers. They also sought vaccines to combat diseases like Polio, which were prevalent in the concentration camps. They were also able to cure other diseases that were common in the camps such as Typhus, Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis. They conducted their experiment on the rapid depressurization and pressurization of human bodies for U-boat operation studies.

Humans may feel pressure when submerged at great depths. The doctors’ research gave them the answers they needed to swim up and out of a sunken underwater submarine. These experiments led to the death of many people and left others crippled or injured. But these deaths weren’t in vain. G-suits were developed as a result of many horrific experiments performed on Jews and Gypsies. The G-suit is used by pilots to protect them from the effects of increased gravitational force on their bodies when they dive at high speeds. This technology was introduced by the Germans and specifically Nazi medical doctors. It appears that only a few of the experiments they conducted on unwilling subjects to gain this information have proven useful for the technology and innovations we use today. These experiments would have prevented us from sending people into space or deep water. These researches are still being used to save many lives today.

The experiments that were carried out in the past came about as a result of spontaneous impulses, and not from a long-term study. It is not possible to find the original documentation of any other experiment. As a result, we are relying on the testimony of several eyewitnesses. These experiments included castration surgeries, organ removals and amputations. Experts from the fields of law, medicine and history met to discuss human experimentation. They only said that Mengele’s work was ineffective. Some of this research is accurate, but it does not follow the scientific methods used at that time. Some prisoners’ bodies were still being used long after they died. Pernkopf Atlas is one of those medical texts that have lasted for centuries. The color plates depicting the body are so accurate that they’ve never been improved. Pernkopf’s apprentices dissected over 1400 bodies. All of the dead prisoners were either political or Jewish prisoners. Many may have been executed solely for the purpose to create these drawings. Once the drawings are completed, artists sign them using tiny swastikas. SS runes were also added. However, in later editions these were removed. This Atlas was used to teach tens or thousands of medical students about the anatomy of humans.

It was a sloppy job, with a lack of record keeping and control. Even Dr. Mengele was sloppy with his work, with no attestable results, and with poor record-keeping. These were not the actions of a man who could experiment on disposable humans. They ignored bio-ethics rules, and their work became increasingly sloppy and sadistic. Bioethics can be defined as the study of various ethical issues that stem from advancements in medicine, biology, and technology. It wasn’t until the 1960s that bioethics became a recognized field of study, largely due to the concerns raised by the Nazi-era medical practices.

Nuremberg was the venue for the trial of the Nazi leaders who were tried after World War II. Twenty doctors were accused of war crimes and crimes committed against humanity. The trials revealed the results of human experiments carried out at Auschwitz Dachau Sachsenhausen Buchenwald. Modern medicine does not hesitate to condemn Nazi doctors, but it says nothing about continuing to use their medical research. Scholars discovered recently that credible literature includes numerous references to Nazi experimentation or the work of former SS physicians. The works that refer to the experiments do not usually contain disclaimers as to how the data were collected. In this case, there is a heated debate over whether the experiment results should be used. It is a common and simple solution to ask how much good it can bring to the users of it right now, then in the long run, justifying it because there are no negative consequences for those who have died. Someone with a little more knowledge would say there are indirect, subtle consequences for people who are directly related, maybe family members. The mental trauma that these people have experienced may overshadow the positive effects of the experiment. The data may be used by some to say that the experiments weren’t so bad. This could lead doctors into conducting their own unethical tests.

The morality of using these data is a complex issue. Even if the data has positive results, it’s important to recognize that the person who uses the data may minimize the work that was done to produce them. It’s hard to know when to allow the good to come out of bad. The answer, according to many people, lies in the ethical obligations that society has towards victims of wrongdoings. Even though the wrongs and abuses committed against the victims may be over, the issue is not resolved. Victims have a right to be recognized for what was done. That society took the matter seriously and punished perpetrators of wrongdoing is also owed to victims. Nuremberg trials of 1946-46 have fulfilled most of these obligations, as has the worldwide disgust for the terrible things done to people during World War II. However, the information used should come with a full disclosure of where it came from.

It’s impossible to imagine that Nazis ever advanced medicine. The ethical code forbids experiments that are done to “improve the greater good”. The data collected was from people who did not consent to the conditions, which are now considered torture. This data was collected with brutality, without any regard for basic ethical principles. Some say that the data should be used, but we must remember that the crime was one for which every country has laws. Life is worth more than money, no mater how short. Nazis did great work in chemistry. However, they didn’t make any progress with medicine. These were excuses to cruelly torture and betray the hostages.

Josef Mengele: “The Angel Of Death” Of Holocaust

Imagine celebrating your six-year-old birthday with family. Imagine that you’re blowing out your candles on your sixth birthday with family when an unknown man breaks through the door. He yells for you to all go outside. When he asks what’s going on, he shoots at you, Father. You know then to keep quiet. Your family is crammed into a cattle-car with 20 other people, and nobody knows what’s going on. All of you are forced into a strange, unknown building. He tells you that this is the ghetto and anyone who disobeys or leaves will be killed. Although there was little food available, many people perished. Your mother, your brother, and yourself were lucky to survive. After a short time, you become accustomed to the horrendous living conditions and are then forced back on the cattle train. You arrive again at Auschwitz. Your mother and yourself go left while your brother, who is older, goes right. You hear that you will be taking a hot shower. This is the first time you have had a shower in several weeks. Your mother and you enter the shower smiling from ear-to-ear, but never leave.

The word “holocaust” is used to describe mass destruction and slaughter, usually caused by nuclear war or fire. The Holocaust occurred during World War II. It was the time when the Nazi Party of Germany sought to eradicate all minorities. The Nazi Party of Germany targeted minorities for many reasons. During that time, Jews were the main target, but other races, like Poles, Gypsies etc., were also targeted. Over 11 million innocent men and women were killed in the Holocaust. The holocaust was a horrific event that saw many innocent people killed. This included nazi soldiers. They started by taking them out of their homes and putting them into overcrowded Ghettos. Minorities were crammed into overcrowded cattle car with 100 or more people in each one, which was only designed to carry 50. Many people died in the ghettos from starvation or illness. The crowded conditions made it easy for illnesses to spread. It was not uncommon for an individual to become ill and then spread the illness throughout their entire building.

Warsaw Ghetto in Germany was the largest ghetto of the Holocaust. This ghetto consisted of brick walls covered with barbed steel and guards towers. Anyone who was caught trying escape was immediately shot. Over 4,000 Jews were confined by the Nazis to a small area of land in Warsaw. The holocaust saw over 1,000 ghettos. These were of three different types: closed, open, and destruction. There were no walls, fences, or gates in open ghettos. Closed ghettos had walls or fences with barbed steel or bricks around the area. In the destruction-ghettos a barbed wire fence or wall was present for maximum security. The nazis killed most people who entered a destruction Ghetto.

The Nazis would then move them to concentration camps. Over 42,000 concentration camp were built. In some concentration camps, all prisoners were killed immediately upon entering the camp. In some concentration camps, the “fit for duty” people were spared death. The doctor who made the decision was Doctor Josef Mengele. He was also known by the minorities as “The Angel of Death” and was located near the Auschwitz entrance. Auschwitz was by far the largest of all concentration camps. Auschwitz had the highest concentration of people during the Holocaust. Auschwitz is where one out of six Holocaust victims died.

Auschwitz consisted of three sections: Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II. Auschwitz I was located in Oswiecim in South Poland. The camp was built to accomplish three major goals: to incarcerate Nazism and Germans perceived to be enemies, to provide slave labor for SS-owned building projects, and to act as a killing ground for small groups whose final fate was determined the SS. Auschwitz was run by Dr Mengele, who also ran the medical experimentation.

He operated on pregnant women, twins and everyone else who was in the camp. He concentrated on his own family in order to learn more about hereditary biochemistry. Doctor Mengele used no anesthesia, pain medication or other drugs on the test subjects. The tools he was using were also rarely cleaned. The dirty equipment often caused serious infections in those who survived the surgery. In addition, he kept meticulous records of every experiment he performed. He fled Auschwitz with his reports. He lived in Latin America until he drowned.

Pythagoras And His Countless Discoveries

Pythagoras’ birth took place in Samos island in 569 BCE. Pythagoras was raised by two or three brothers. The brothers and he studied Homer, poetry and the lyre. Pythias was his mother and Mnesarchus was his father. He often went on business trips to learn from scholars. The scholars taught him geometry, cosmology and other subjects. Mnesarchus was said to have brought him once to Tyre, Syria, where he would study under Syrian scholars. Some scholars also believe they may have traveled to Italy during those years. Pythagoras’ studies included many others. He studied with many people of wisdom in Chaldea. He also studied philosophy with Pherecydes from Syros. He also studied philosophy with Thales and Anaximander, the student of Thales. Thale’s theories had influenced his discoveries in astronomy and geometry later in life.

Pythagoras studied with priests in Egypt 34 years after his conception. Others say that he left for Egypt to study with priests in order escape Polycrates’ tyranny, ruler of Samos. Some believe that he studied for a short time with the Egyptian priest Oenuphis. He stayed in this place for 10 years. He was finally admitted to the priesthood. Pythagoras, who was captured in Egypt by Persia and taken to Babylon as a prisoner 525 BCE. He was treated differently than a normal prisoner by Bablyonians. He escaped later and returned to Samos. He established a Semicircle school in Samos. A group was murdered by travelers from the island. The same people returned later. Pythagoras was heard by the leaders on his island. Many politicians were upset by this and he gained many enemies. In only 500 BCE was his school raided. Many of Pythagoreans, his students and followers, were killed by the burning of buildings. Pythagoras refused to step on plants, even when his life was at stake. He believed all living creatures have souls. He studied in Crete after a period of time. He also founded a second school here. In addition, he also worked in a secrecy group to discuss math, philosophy, Metaphysics, and Religion. The Pythagoreans believed that souls are immortal and cannot be harm. Pythagoras also urged Pythagoreans to adhere to a code that was followed by all Pythagoreans. All Pythagoreans dressed in simple linen. They were forbidden to urinate publicly. They were also encouraged to have kids and reject material that was wealthy. Pythagoras’ rules were based on everyday life. They were also known as a society that maintained silence. The silence of new members was to be maintained for a period of five years. The code they had set up forbid them to discuss their discoveries. The Semicircle school that had been destroyed earlier was rebuilt by him when he returned to Samos. Pythagoras shared with his students his philosophical and mathematical discoveries. The platonic solids are one of these. The five solids that make up the platonic system are: tetrahedrons (4 triangles), squares (6 triangles), octahedrons (8 triangles), Dodecahedrons (12 pentagons) and Icosahedrons (20 triangles). These are the only three-dimensional polyhedrons with regular polygons as their sides. Pythagoras built the first three platonic Platonic solids. Pythagoras has also been credited with the designation of odd numbers and even ones. He referred to even and odd number as feminine. Pythagoras also gave many other numbers characteristics. He defines modulo today, which is a math concept that’s widely used. He created a system of remainders that is still in use today. He also defined squares. He also defined tetrakyt as the sum of all the numbers between 1 and n. Triangular numbers are what we call them today. Due to this, they are thought of as a unique number. The reason for this is that the tetraktys represent the number points needed to describe the universe. First 2 points create a 2D line. If you add a 3rd point, the 2D line is transformed into a 3D figure. A third point added to the line of the first three gives us a three-dimensional figure. Scientists are now using this information in order to create newer dimensions. Scientists believe the universe may have more dimensions than three. Pythagoras is best known for his Pythagorean Theorem, which is one of the most important discoveries he made. The Pythagorean theorem is one of Pythagoras’ most profound and well-known discoveries. For the equation to work, we will let the legs and hypotenuse of a triangle be of lengths a, b and c.

The basic geometric formula is a foundation of Euclidean and mathematics. The formula was not proven until Euclid. Some claim that the formula had been discovered by Egyptians. Pythagoras only popularized and used it. A second conspiracy was born from this remarkable discovery. The time was when they thought that all lengths were expressed using the ratio a:b. The pythagorean principle showed this wasn’t always true. This value is not a ratio. All Pythagoreans would disagree with this. We now know that lengths may be irrational or rational.

Pythagoras made discoveries in other fields as well. His discoveries also included music and cosmology. He discovered, for example, that planets were spherical. The matter, due to the gravity of the planets, was packed in a form that is almost spherical. He counted 9 planets but claimed there was a 10th planet opposite Earth which could not be seen. These discoveries laid the foundations of cosmology as we know it today. Later, his belief in a 10th world was proven false. He also discovered that music is composed by ratios. A ratio is 1:2. A ratio between 3:2 and 4:3 will produce a fifth. The pitch is determined by the proportion of the length between the held string and the overall length. This principle is used by music instruments to produce different pitch sounds.

Pythagoras was killed for unknown reasons. Some claim that his school was destroyed in a raid. Others claim he was murdered by a mob. Others claim that he became involved in the conflict between Agrigentumians & Syracusans. His legacy will last forever. Pythagoras was responsible for more than half the mathematical discoveries. Moreover, he also contributed to the foundations of philosophy and cosmology. It is a legacy that will live on forever. Pythagoreans, in addition to continuing Pythagoras’s work, continued to improve it. His followers finished the final 2 platonic Solids soon after his death. Pythagoras’ discoveries were also used by many mathematicians to develop new theorems. It is impossible to forget his presence.

Pythagoras is a man filled with wonders. His discoveries in mathematics and cosmology as well as his philosophy are worthy of praise, but we also have to honor his lifelong obedience. He remained loyal to his code even when he was surrounded by many opponents and hateful people. He represents the meaning of maximizing life. Imagine what life would be like without Pythagoras the next time you’re in math class.

Sources Cited

Greene, Nick. “The Life of Pythagoras.” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 10 Oct. 2019, www.thoughtco.com/pythagoras-biography-3072241

Mark, Joshua J. “Pythagoras.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 24 Feb. 2020, www.ancient.eu/Pythagoras/.

Staeger, Rob. Ancient Mathematicians. Morgan Reynolds Pub., 2009.

Edmund Burke And Historical Precedent

Edmund Burke argues that historical precedent can help us to deal with similar issues in the present. Edmund Burke is an advocate of keeping policies and customs of the past, not just for tradition’s sake but also for their success. Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution In France suggests that the present government should take into account the knowledge, respect and adherence of past practices in successful nations.

Once a nation has adopted a particular practice as tradition, it becomes dear to its citizens and should not be disputed without just cause. A nation’s tradition is cherished by its citizens. It should not change without good reason. Burke makes this clear when he writes: “All our reformations have followed the principle that reverence is due to antiquity…all future reformations will be based upon precedents and examples.”

Burke is convinced that the best way to reform law is by examining well-established precedents. Burke cites Magna Charta, a positive charter from Henry I. to prove his point. He describes the Magna Carta as “nothing but a reaffirmation of an even older standing law in the kingdom”.

Burke believes the idea of ‘inheritance is key to understanding both past events and future expectations. The concept of inheritance is used by Burke to justify and explain the change from the Magna Charta Declaration of Rights to the Magna Charta as an example of “entailed heritage derived to us from the forefathers.” This ‘inheritance’ serves more than just to maintain the traditional constitution, but to also preserve a nation’s unity. Burke thinks that preserving fundamental inheritances is the best way to create newer policies.

Burke firmly believes that the notion of maintaining a policy by ‘profound reflexion’ or respecting previous practices is something to which we should adhere above all. Burke compares preserving traditional customs and following nature, which implies that it is important to maintain a civil state in a given country. He states that “by a constitution policy, which follows the pattern in nature, we are able to receive, hold and transmit our government as we do our lives and property.” The institutions that govern us are passed down in the exact same way.

Burke also criticizes those who want to change or revolutionize the state’s policy. Burke’s subtly critiques current French government policies, even if they are well-intentioned. Burke then addresses the topic directly, saying “All you sophisters are unable to produce anything that is better adapted to the preservation of a rational manly freedom.”

Burke believes that the past has a profound influence on the present. Burke means to say that governments which are indifferent or unaware of the past are doomed for mass unrest. State officials can and should in many scenarios amend or reform policies, but they must be mindful of the past and use it as a guide for future decisions.

Queen Hatshepsut: A Biography

Biography: Queen Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut was a female Egyptian ruler who is well known. Hatshepsut is believed to have been born in 1508 B.C.E. Thebes is the Egyptian city where King Thutmose was born. His wife Ahmose was his queen and principal spouse. Hatshepsut was often cited as Egypt’s first woman leader, but research has shown that there were women who reigned before her, including “Merneith (c. 3000 BCE) in the Early Dynastic Period, and Sobeknefru (c. 1807-1802 BCE) in the Middle Kingdom. Twosret (1189-1190 BCE), after her, towards the end of the 19th Dynasty. Hatshepsut’s role as Egypt’s first woman leader is often misunderstood. In fact, women reigned long before her.

Hatshepsut’s father, King Thutmose 1, and her principal wife, queen Ahmose, were both born in the year 1508 B.C.E. Hatshepsut inherited the throne of her father, King Thutmose II. Hatshepsut became queen after her half-brother King Thutmose died. Hatshepsut’s half-brother Thutmose had a child with Hatshepsut, Neferure. Thutmose inherited the throne of his father in around 1492 b.c.e. Thutmose, the son of Thutmose, died in a very young age (around 1479 B.C.E.). His infant son then inherited his father’s throne.

Accede to Leadership

After serving for 15 years as King Thutmose, Hatshepsut died at the young age of 30, leaving her a widow. Neferure’s only son was to inherit the throne, as Thutmose III had been born by a secondary wife called Isis. Thutmose 3 was too small to rule alone. Hatshepsut was his regent and handled all state affairs. Hatshepsut became the co-ruler and ruler of Egypt after less than 7 years. Hatshepsut’s success in transitioning from queen to pharaoh is partly attributed to her “ability of recruiting influential supporters.” Many of these men were Thutmose II’s favorites.

Hatshepsut’s reign

Scholars praise Hatshepsut’s pharaonic rule. Hatshepsut devoted more time to ensuring Egypt’s economic prosperity and building, restoring and maintaining monuments in Nubia and Egypt than conquering lands. One of her most notable achievements is the monumental memorial temple in Deir el-Bahri. This temple was considered an architectural marvel of ancient Egypt. It was called djeser djeseru in ancient times, meaning “the most sacred place.” The temple had three terraces with colonnaded walls that led to a sanctuary. Hatshepsut’s reign is also notable for the trading expeditions she authorized, which brought vast wealth to Egypt, including ivory and ebony as well gold, leopards skins, incense, and other precious materials from Punt.

Death and legacy

Hatshepsut probably died around the age of forty in 1458 B.C.E. Scientists believe that in recent years the cause of Hatshepsut’s death may have been an ointment/salve used for a chronic skin condition – a treatment containing a toxic substance. She was buried near Deir el-Bahri in the Valley of the Kings. Thutmose IIII, during his reign, was determined to wipe out Hatshepsut’s name and legacy. He may have done this to erase Hatshepsut’s reputation as a female leader or to fill the gap left by the male succession. Thutmose 3 destroyed or defaced all of Hatshepsut’s monuments. He also erased a number of her writings and built walls around her Obelisks. Hatshepsut ruled for a short time, and scholars were unaware of her existence until 1822.

Historical Context And Further Impact Of The Stamp Act And The Thirteen Colonies Of The United States

Explain briefly the following events, which led to ratification of Declaration of Independence. Stamp Act of 1765 marked the beginning of a major dispute between Great Britain and the North American colonies over the Stamp Act. All paper products were taxed under the Stamp Act. The British government justified the tax on paper products by stating that it was needed to fund military operations in North America. The colonists did not find any reason to justify the act. Protests began to spread, ranging anywhere from refusing the purchase of stamps all the way to full-blown riots. They objected because they were unable to be represented in parliament. The Declaratory Act was issued by Parliament in 1766, repealing the Act. Charles Townshend introduced the Townshend Acts (1767). The acts included a number of taxes on imported goods such as glass, paints (including lead), paper, tea and paper. This levy was met with a boycott of British products by the colonists. The Townshend Acts underwent reform in 1768. Boston Tea Party was a result of the British East India Company being given control of importing and exporting tea by the British parliament. The colonial trader’s were furious and refused to cover the tea import taxes. To stop the British from auctioning off the tea to get the fee, Sons of Liberty dumped it into Boston Harbor. In response, the British passed the Intolerable Act. These acts each made colonists want to leave Great Britain. The colonists were not happy with the British taxes they were paying. They wanted to leave England to form their own government. Thomas Jefferson was one of five members on the Committee. The others were Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and John Adams.

Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson authored the Declaration.

Who edited the work?

Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and others edited the Declaration.

What is the Declaration in three parts?

The introduction-Preamble, states that the document would declare the causes for the colonies split from the British Empire. The body is divided into sections. The first subsection reveals George III’s abuses, usurpations, and abuses of power. The second part of the report states that colonists appealed to Britain for independence in vain, but without success. How did the draft by the Committee be received by Congress members? The Congress accepted the draft as a group, but wanted to change some parts and drop others. What are the two biggest changes that the representatives made? The change that George III is to blame for slavery and the slavetrade was one of them. There were other changes made, too. Why did Jefferson, and others, not fight more against these changes. They didn’t do it because they knew that if the Declaration of Independence was not agreed to, then the country would never be independent. Life, Liberty and Happiness. What is unalienable meant? Not transferable or alienable. The Declaration’s premise is based on independence. The colonists were seeking freedom from unfair taxation, without representation at Parliament. They wanted the chance to establish a local government, where people would have the final say on what was done in their city. The Declaration is a document that explains the reasons for declaring independence. Sixty-five people signed the consent. List all thirteen colonies.

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