The word History comes from the Greek istorio, which means investigation, research or exploration. The study of history is the narration of past events and stories. The study of history explains how men have fought the forces of nature for food, shelters, clothing and political and social organizations. History was written by men many years ago. This gave them the chance to reconstruct their lives and events, which helped in interpreting and analyzing history. Furay & Salevouris, 1988 define historiography: “the study and interpretation of history.” Historiography is not about studying past events. It’s more about the different interpretations of them. Historiography is the study that takes a different view of these same events. Historiography aims to write true accounts of events in the past that actually took place. In order to demonstrate the importance historiography has in the study of history, the essay presents different views on it from scholars.
Humans or living organisms have had a sense or memory of the past since they were created. They knew their history and the history of others. Humans are unique in nature. In the middle ages, both Greeks as well as Roman historians lost their charm and integrity in writing. This was mostly due to the Christian rise, who were believed to be sent by God to protect human wellbeing. To prove humanity and to condemn those who do so peacefully they must document, preserve the traditions of the religion and make their followers loyal. Slowly Christianity gained control over mankind again due to its supernatural influence.
History was seen as an account of events that were planned carefully and conveyed only by gods or their delegates. In the past, events recorded were not seen by historians as human acts but were instead deeds performed by the gods. Semi history declared that despite the fact that it is a small affirmation, the historical information contained in the book was not the answer to any inquiries, or the opinion of a specialist.
The history of historical writing is told through the historiography. Historiography now includes the development of historical writing techniques and ideas, as well as the evolving attitude toward history. It’s ultimately a study of how people perceive the past. The historian’s reconstruction is history, but it also deals with evidence. Records left by the past must be treated with caution, as they might not be entirely authentic.
Herodotus wrote about far-off events, which were told to him by second and third parties, with his curious nature. He also tried to find out how they happened. In essence, he tried to find rational explanations for the events, including the impact of geography and climate. He treated Greeks with patriotic zeal, but also fairly presented both sides in many political disputes. The style he adopted was loose, romantic, yet fascinating. He satisfied the desire of men for great stories with a style that is both easygoing and captivating.
Most western scholars have the same perspective as Herodotus. Chinese scholars or historians have no rights to publish their own opinions. The ruler, the emperor, and the aristocrats sponsored them to write their own history. Chinese historians were not influenced outside of China. The ‘Shi” is a form of history that requires three qualities: historical knowledge, talent and virtue. This gives a clear idea of the seriousness with which history is taken. In addition, the authors used the lessons learned from history to write a history that would benefit the future. Although their writings differ, they share similar topics and sections. Chinese history only includes comprehensive history. Dynastic history has been replaced with comprehensive history.
Ibn khaldun represents the Arab history what Thucydides represents Greek historiography, Tacitus represents Rome’s, and Thucydides represents Greek. Khaldun once said, “It is the science that explains circumstances and events. Its causes are deep.” It is a part of ancient wisdom that deserves to be called science. Muslims generally used criticism, observational, comparative and examinational methods. Critique is used to analyse historical events and their source, as well as the methods of historians. Examining different accounts and comparing them to eliminate falsifications or exaggerations. For a historian to be able criticize and explain effectively, they said that he or she must be educated and accurate in observation.
Historians use primary sources, such as documents, artifacts, architecture, and human remains, to interpret the past. Roman historians emphasized wars over social issues, and emphasized conquests. Some historians however, such as Chinese ones, didn’t give much thought to cause and affect because they wrote only what they were asked to. They rely more on Greek methods and less on Greek texts. In general, historiography is so biased. Pictor, for instance, wrote only on the history and morality of the roman state.
Historiography has helped us to understand the past in a new way. The most meaningful interpretation of their work is made when one examines the time period during which they composed. Historiography in reality is a reflection of the events that gave rise to it. In the same way that progressives were concerned with improving the standard of living in an era of innovation, dynamic historians viewed the revolutionary warriors as rivals for the ordinary man’s parcel.